The declining rates for lithium use are linked to the burden of side effects and toxicity associated with the drug.
The Mood Zoom questionnaire rates anxiety, elation, sadness, anger, irritability, and energy on a 7-point scale.
Cognitive reserve in bipolar patients gives a possible explanation for the differences seen among patients in their ability to perform in neurocognitive tests.
Researchers observe a cohort effect for earlier age at onset of bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is also more common in patients with a family history of unipolar depression and bipolar disorder.
Treatment initiated in the early stages of bipolar disorder is more effective than treatment in later stages.