The first step for managing a patient with diarrhea is to determine the severity of dehydration according to the estimated volume loss and the symptoms and signs noted on physical examination.
Primary prevention efforts such as exercise, weight control, cessation of smoking, and alcohol intake can greatly affect the development of CAD.
UTIs present clinically as dysuria, with symptoms of frequent and urgent urination secondary to irritation of the urethral and bladder mucosa.
The importance of male vaccination cannot be overemphasized, because the risk of male-to-female HPV transmission is significant.
Consensus regarding mammography screening varies, and conflicting guidelines from medical organizations can cause confusion for patients and providers.
Co-prescribing naloxone and opioids in primary care is recommended for patients who have a high risk for opioid overdose.
The disease may often go undiagnosed in adults because clinicians may be relatively inexperienced in identifying childhood illnesses in adults.
Primary care providers can help significantly reduce heart failure exacerbations and improve their patients' overall quality of life.
An overview of porphyrias, lupus erythematosus, rosacea, drug-induced photosensitivity, polymorphous light eruption, and solar urticaria.
Understanding genetic testing allows providers to make the most of this resource in patient care.
Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential to mitigate the cascading events that lead to irreversible joint erosion in rheumatoid arthritis.
The condition has one fundamental pathophysiology but multiple distinct clinical presentations, including venous and neurogenic.
Lithium has been the mainstay of treatment for decades, but several other classes of medication have recently been used with varying degrees of success.
More than 99% of immunocompetent persons aged 40 years and older have evidence of VZV infection and are susceptible to herpes zoster or shingles.
By initiating a conversation, primary care providers can identify specific end-of-life needs and goals, manage symptoms, and coordinate care.
Often underreported and undertreated, outcomes can be improved in this condition with appropriate screening and diagnosis.
An aging national infrastructure and paint in old homes increase the risk for lead poisoning and significant health-related problems in children and adults.
Effective treatment requires the recognition of addiction as a brain disease and an understanding of its underlying physiology and pathophysiology.
Many upper- and lower-airway problems can cause wheeze and cough, and some conditions coexist with asthma. Here's how to pin down a diagnosis.
An accurate diagnosis is crucial. It is necessary to know which related drugs need to be avoided, as well as alternative drugs to recommend for patients.
The authors place particular emphasis on the IBS's status as a true disease as opposed to a figment of the patient's imagination.
Four million people in the United States are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Many have had the virus for decades, without any symptoms, unknowingly passing it on to others.
Movement of gastric acid into the esophagus can cause irritation, inflammation, and ulceration—and, in some cases, may herald cancer.
Biologic agents, some of them already used for arthritis, are proving highly effective against this disfiguring disease. But there's a downside: high cost.
There are four established options and two new ones — DNA markers and virtual colonoscopies. Here are the pluses and minuses of each.
It's surprisingly common, yet both patients and clinicians tend to think there's little that can be done. That used to be true — but not anymore.
Increasing antimicrobial resistance among the causative pathogens has made it more difficult to effectively treat UTIs and prostatitis.
Combing through the best and latest trials, our experts synthesize the findings. Learn which patients need drugs and which drugs are best.
In a major public-health advance, a new vaccine has been approved to protect against four viral strains. Two experts tell the best way to use it.
The American Heart Association guidelines are based on important dietary strategies that have emerged in the past decade.
Use the first visit to get as much information as possible about the patient's condition, functional status, and social situation.
In the future, more and more children with cardiac risk factors, such as obesity and diabetes, will be treated in the primary-care setting.
Blood tests can detect thyroid dysfunction, which can result in cardiac, GI, and menstrual disturbances as well as abnormalities in fetal neural development.
To reach the goal of providing herd immunity in communities, clinicians must use every patient encounter to determine vaccination status.
The disfiguring lesions of acne vulgaris can have a severe psychological impact. Fortunately, clinicians now have a broad range of therapeutic options.
Updated guidelines spell out therapy for superficial as well as life-threatening disease variants that are the product of modern medicine.
Effective treatment may ease the pain of peptic ulcer disease and gastritis, prevent progression of gastric malignancy, and ease iron deficiency anemia.
Not all knee complaints require orthopedic referral. This review of basic testing and exam techniques will help you arrive at an accurate diagnosis.
Seen frequently in children, this skin disease can affect patients of all ages. Knowing the proper therapy and how to prevent dissemination is crucial.
Although commonly considered a disease of women, men can be affected too. New guidelines recommend risk assessment for men and treatment for both sexes.
Presenting complaints include hearing loss, persistent pain, or "clicking" in the ear. Patients must allow time for treatment (if required) to take effect.
Seizures in the elderly often mimic other conditions, such as transient ischemic attack or dementia. Don't be fooled into a misdiagnosis.
While research into specific cause-and-effect relationships continues, there are still plenty of reasons to encourage patients to take care of their mouth.
Guidelines advise against the routine use of antibiotics, but patients demand them. Find out what alternatives are available and when to use them.
Too often patients focus on daily goals of diabetes management, but don't let them lose sight of the ultimate goal: preventing end-organ damage.
Most anemia is diagnosed from screening a complete blood count (CBC). A prediction rule using the CBC and serum ferritin can help identify the type.
While most nail disorders involve bacterial or fungal infection, there are other causes you should be aware of. Find out what to do about them.
Dogs provide love and companionship for millions, but accidents happen. Find out what you and your patients can do to prepare for them.
Some risk factors are unavoidable, but adjusting your patient's diet and addressing comorbidities can prevent excruciating episodes.