Bariatric surgery may induce type 2 diabetes remission in obese patients, but more direct evidence is needed.
Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation does not reduce mortality or cardiovascular events in patients with or at high risk for diabetes.
Measuring cardiac troponin T levels using a high-sensitivity assay twice, one hour apart can diagnose and rule out MI in most patients with chest pain.
Hydromorphone for postoperative pain does not appear to increase delirium in elderly patients having hip fracture surgery.
Minimally invasive surfactant treatment reduces need for ventilation in spontaneously breathing preterm infants requiring increased oxygen.
Nursing protocols for fever, hyperglycemia, and swallowing management in patients with acute stroke may reduce dependence.
Ulipristal acetate controls uterine bleeding and reduces discomfort associated with fibroids.
No differences in major cardiac adverse events or hospitalization for chest pain among women who underwent exercising plus MPI vs. exercising alone.
No significant differences observed in overall HF risk among patients with moderately prolonged QRS intervals who receive cardiac resynchronization therapy.
Current recommendations from the American Heart Association and the American Stroke Association classify percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting (PTAS) as an investigational intervention with unknown utility for patients with transient ischemic attack or stroke.
A new randomized trial provides strong evidence that azithromycin reduces exacerbations and improves respiratory function in high-risk patients.
An echocardiogram is often performed prior to non-cardiac surgery to identify patients at risk of cardiac complications even though the American College of Cardiology recommends against routine perioperative evaluation of left-ventricular function in such patients.
Statins are widely used for treating elevated cholesterol for both primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. One concern about their use has been the possibility of increasing the risk of diabetes.
Early fluid resuscitation is recommended for hemodynamic support in critically ill children, but there has been little evidence to guide the type, timing and volume of fluids to use, especially in children who are not severely hypotensive or dehydrated.
Xanthelasma palpebrarum, a yellowish deposit of cholesterol underneath the eyelid, is identified as an independent CV risk factor.
Observational studies have previously shown that antiretroviral therapy (ART) may reduce the transmission of HIV in serodiscordant couples. A new unblinded randomized trial suggests that early initiation of ART for the infected partner may reduce transmission more effectively than delaying ART until the CD4 count has fallen.
Diagnosis of congenital heart disease in newborns is sometimes delayed until after hospital discharge, increasing the risk of illness and death. Pulse oximetry screening may help clinicians detect it early.
Research suggests that androgen-deprivation therapy improves survival when added to radiotherapy in men with locally advanced, stage T3 or T4 prostate cancer or with prostate cancer with high metastatic risk.
Studies have suggested that vitamin D supplementation may reduce cancer and cardiovascular disease, but evidence for the effects of supplementation on mortality has been inconsistent.
The aromatase inhibitor exemestane (Aromasin) may reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer in at-risk postmenopausal women.
For HIV-infected adults with a positive tuberculin skin test, TB Prophylaxis with isoniazid for 36 months appears more effective than for six months.
A review of recent clinical trials reveals the benefits of corticosteroids in adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia remain uncertain.
Patients with Graves' disease who took selenium demonstrated improvements in overall quality of life and opthalmologic assessment.
The FDA recently announced a labeling change for the smoking-cessation aid varenicline (Chantix) concerning cardiovascular risks.
Phentermine was used for the medical management of weight loss in combination with fenfluramine or dexfenfluramine until side effects related to cardiac valvular disease and pulmonary hypertension were linked to the fenfluramine/dexfenfluramine component. It is currently used as monotherapy or in combination with topiramate.
New data indicate that combining GP100 with interleukin-2 increased clinical response, delayed recurrence and may improve survival among patients with advanced melanoma
BABY-HUG trial results indicate that hydroxyurea significantly reduces pain events in children with sickle-cell disease, and was also associated with reduced gastroenteritis, acute chest syndrome, transfusions and hospitalizations.
Until recently, there has been little direct evidence to evaluate the efficacy of prunes as a dietary treatment or to compare prunes with other treatments for constipation.
Local injections to narrow the anal canal reduced fecal incontinence by 25% at one-year follow-up, data from recent clinical trials indicate.
Intramuscular or vaginal progesterone appears effective for reducing premature delivery, but data on neonatal outcomes have been limited until recently.
Treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer is primarily surgical, but the optimal extent of mediastinal lymph node resection is unclear.
For patients with cardiovascular disease, current guidelines recommend NSAIDs for pain relief only in patients for whom there are no alternatives and only at the lowest doses and durations necessary.
Patients who visit the ED with acute coronary syndrome symptoms often have less serious conditions, but current diagnostic protocols are costly, lengthy and tend to require hospital admission.
Use of evidence-based procedures such as primary percutaneous coronary intervention, reperfusion and revascularization is on the rise.
Amoxicillin-clavulanate studied in children who met strict criteria for AOM diagnose.
Previous trials investigating cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) (biventricular pacing) combined with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in patients with heart failure have shown nonsignificant improvements in mortality compared with ICD monotherapy. But a newer study has promising results.
DIGITAT trial compared expectant management and labor induction in 650 women with suspected intrauternine growth restriction.
Hot flushes are one of the more bothersome symptoms of menopause. Traditionally treated with estrogens, alternative medications have been sought to avoid the risks of hormone replacement therapy.
BP control is important for reducing risk of cardiovascular events, but the optimal BP level in many clinical scenarios is unknown.
Mixed evidence supporting duloxetine for treatment of chronic low-back pain.
Glucosamine and chondroitin, alone and in combination, have become popular as both prescription and OTC supplements for joint pain, but is there evidence to back it up?
New reports from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-32 trial show that SLN resection is as effective for survival as ALND and may reduce postsurgical morbidity and symptoms in node-negative women.
A surgical safety checklist developed by the WHO to facilitate communication and safety checks was associated with reduced surgical mortality in a before-and-after study at eight hospitals.
Ivabradine is a novel agent that lowers heart rate by inhibiting the I(f) current in the sinoatrial node.
The decision as to when to give blood transfusions is complex, requiring a careful assessment of risks and benefits.
Medications are often used for treatment of adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but many patients remain symptomatic despite treatment with stimulants or other drugs.
The prevalence of BRCA1 or BRCA 2 mutations is estimated at about 0.2%-0.33% of the population, but these mutations account for 5%-10% of breast cancers and 10%-15% of ovarian cancers among white women in the United States.
The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) sponsored a systemic literature review to address the utility of diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MRI in diagnosis and prognosis for acute ischemic stroke.
The CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has released its 2010 recommendations for the prevention and control of influenza.
A randomized trial of 66 patients with fibromyalgia suggests that Tai Chi might be helpful for both pain and sleep disturbance symptoms.