The condition has one fundamental pathophysiology but multiple distinct clinical presentations, including venous and neurogenic.
Dysfunction of the endocrine system may lead to various neurologic manifestations, including headaches.
Lithium has been the mainstay of treatment for decades, but several other classes of medication have recently been used with varying degrees of success.
By initiating a conversation, primary care providers can identify specific end-of-life needs and goals, manage symptoms, and coordinate care.
An awareness of the risks and red flags among adolescent patients who are being trafficked for sex is key to intervention in this vulnerable population.
Increasing evidence has shown a link between pesticide exposure and the risk for Parkinson's disease. How real is this link on the golf course?
Osteoarthritis is one of the most common problems encountered in primary care, and conservative treatment can improve patients' quality of life.
Developing personalized nutrition goals with a registered dietitian can be effective in managing non-insulin-dependent diabetes.
A number of therapeutic options exist for patients with psoriasis, including phototherapy and systemic and biologic agents.
Although usually benign, some infantile hemangiomas have complications that are potentially fatal or physically debilitating if untreated.
Patients with COP generally have positive outcomes following a definitive diagnosis and the initiation of appropriate treatment.
Education of high risk populations and regular testing are crucial steps clinicians can take to stem the spread of hepatitis C infection.
A condition prone to recurrence, Crohn disease has a complicated presentation and pathophysiology, but multiple treatment options are available.
Primary care clinicians should be proficient at assessing the potential for hereditary breast cancer risk in their patients.
By presenting research on the safety and efficacy of the flu vaccine, clinicians can successfully promote vaccination to patients in their care.
Multiple considerations come into play when choosing anticoagulant therapy for a patient with atrial fibrillation, a condition that greatly increases the risk for stroke.
ACOG's current recommendations regarding Pap smear testing for cervical cancer may be the best evidence-based practice for patients.
Providers should educate their patients on the prevalence of influenza, its potential complications, and the available prevention options.
Disseminating accurate information can help women make informed decisions and potentially increase the overall use of intrauterine devices.
The challenge associated with assessing for anxiety disorders is that the clinical features of one disorder can closely resemble those of another.
Caring for a woman who is pregnant and dependent on opioids is an opportunity to make life-changing interventions for the sake of her health and the health of her unborn child.
Understanding the nontraditional terminology used by men who have sex with men will help form a successful patient-provider relationship.
Recognizing red flag symptoms, such as anxiety, depression, and increased substance use, is important in helping victims who are reluctant to report the assault.
Although e-cigarettes may not be considered healthy, they may be the lesser of two evils when compared with traditional tobacco cigarettes.
Fun at the beach exposes children and adults to a number of hazards—some avoidable, such as sunburn, and some less so.
Needle aponeurotomy and collagenase Clostridium histolyticum are both viable options for treating patients with Dupuytren disease.
Mobile apps have great potential for use in patient-centered care, follow-up, and improving health outcomes.
Ruling out a physiological reason for symptoms is a good starting point for NPs and PAs caring for patients with a new psychiatric disorder.
Each year clusters of meningitis cases break out in the U.S. in the fall and winter months, particularly among adolescents and young adults.
Anal fissures can be confused with hemorrhoids in everyday primary practice but require their own treatment protocol.
NPs and PAs must work in collaboration with oral health clinicians to effectively educate patients in the prevention of periodontal disease.
Cognitive behavioral therapy may have long-term positive effects in patients with insomnia who have chronic use of hypnotic drugs.
Clinicians might need to consider an uncommon array of causes when faced with a pediatric patient suffering from abdominal ailments.
Congenital cytomegalovirus is a very common cause of birth defects, yet many primary-care providers are not well-informed about this infection.
The current infectious-disease focus is on ebola and enterovirus D68, but an old foe, rubella, is once again demanding attention.
Young people might not understand the health consequences of participating in stunts that help them feel like part of the crowd.
A key element of the collaborative practice agreement is communication.
The Clinical Advisor asked infectious-diseases specialist Michael E. Klepser, PharmD, about the role over-the-counter agents play in seasonal influenza.
Airflow disturbances during sleep need to be recognized and evaluated before harm comes to the patients themselves or those around them.
Multiple studies show that just about any low-meat or no-meat diet reduces almost all controllable risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
Approximately 90% of epistaxis cases seen can be treated successfully by primary-care providers. The remainder of cases require an otolaryngologist referral.
The start of the "sun-worshipping season" is a good time to review the primary-care basics of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas.
Consumers becoming more involved in do-it-yourself genetic testing need primary-care clinicians to put the results into context for them.
Brush up on the basics of preventing, recognizing and addressing melanoma among your patient ranks.
Prostate cancer is the most common male-related malignancy in the US, the second most common cause of cancer-related death among men.
Selecting appropriate lab tests when evaluating persons with symptoms suggesting a rheumatic condition often requires a bit of detective work.
Vulvar biopsy is a helpful tool that should be utilized to diagnose and to guide the management of vulvar abnormalities.
Research on the relationship between footwear and injury rates is limited. A switch to a minimalist shoe or barefoot running should be done gradually.
Originally used to treat lead poisoning and hypercalcemia, chelation has shown promise among individuals with heart disease and other conditions.
A short review of the human herpesvirus mononucleosis, testing options and recurrence.
In those older than age 65 years, high BP heightens risk for various forms of heart disease as well as for chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus.
Federal criminalization of this drug—most commonly used in the treatment of HIV, pain and glaucoma—has limited research into its effectiveness.
Advances are outpacing arrival speed for this potentially lifesaving technology.
Widespread over-diagnosis of certain conditions with new criteria among top concerns.
The latest revision of the diagnostic manual does away with the complex multiaxial organization in favor of a simpler chapter order of disorders.
The most recent guidelines from the American College of Rheumatology include pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapy for hyperuricemia.
When treating an adult female patient with the chief complaint of alopecia, the clinician should pay particular attention to the pattern of hair loss.
This challenging diagnosis presents as a dull, throbbing and achy pain in the vulvar region and may require referral to an interventional radiologist.
Accurate identification, assessment and evaluation of concussions will enable clinicians to determine when it is safe for young athletes to return to competition.
Surveillance on the part of primary-care clinicians is critical to the timely identification of cancerous lesions in at-risk individuals.
A collaborative approach to cancer treatment, incorporating the entire oncology team and the PCP, provides the best outcomes for quality patient care.
How should a clinician handle a difference of opinion with the attending physician on duty?
A healthy and thriving boy aged 8 years, has never been able to achieve complete nighttime dryness since being potty trained at age 3 years.
When treating a young patient for monosymptomatic enuresis, be sure to assess the physical, emotional, and developmental maturity of the child.
A chart of medications available to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
This infection manifests as a collection of pus and is often a complication of tonsillitis that may require referral to a specialist or hospitalization.
Often at increased risk for disease transmission, many teens and preteens do not receive the recommended immunizations in a timely manner.
A number of potential causes of vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy must be considered when deciding what type of management is required.
Societal changes and pharmaceutical advances have led to a rise in sexual activity in this population, and clinicians must adapt to a new reality.
Primarily used in food and drink packaging, ingestion of bisphenol A has recently been linked to obesity, diabetes, and reproductive disorders.
Urinalysis and physical exam determine if the infection is complicated or uncomplicated, primary or recurrent and guide treatment strategy.
Mounting evidence suggests current food production, transport and land use may negatively impact both climate and obesity outcomes.
Clinicians need to be prepared for the unique challenges presented by the growing number of older patients with HIV.
Exercise caution when a patient presents with acute chest pain. The ability to explain the situation as clearly as possible is essential.
The ability to differentiate between the allergic and nonallergic form of these conditions is crucial when determining treatment.
Long-acting ADHD medications improve adherence and demonstrate efficacy similar to that of immediate-release dose formulations.
Experienced by up to one in five mothers, postpartum depression often goes untreated. Learn what risk factors to be alert for.
As LDL goals become more aggressive, therapeutic lifestyle changes are increasingly important in achieving recommended lipid levels.
mHealth apps can help empower patients and improve management of chronic diseases like asthma, diabetes and heart disease.
This article highlights the differences in the pathophysiology and diagnostic criteria for OA and RA, and also describes current and potentially new treatment options for these conditions.
The symptoms of this common lung infection usually dissipate after a week, but some cases can become severe and require hospitalization.
If the treatment goal of viral eradicatication cannot be met, strive to slow disease progression, lower risk of liver cancer, and improve quality of life.
Clinicians should check how well patients are responding to testosterone replacement therapy every three to four months during the first year.
Around 20% of pediatric patients with ADHD will develop antisocial personality disorder in adulthood.
Vitamin D promotes absorption of calcium in the intestine and maintains adequate serum phosphate and calcium concentrations.
Men typically seek treatment after melanoma has already progressed to later stages, accounting for higher mortally rates compared with women.
The need to educate patients and help them make difficult lifestyle changes requires clinicians to think differently and offer novel treatment approaches.
Patients often consider supplements and herbs harmless, but combining them with other drugs can have devastating consequences.
Most clinicians have dealt with a dissatisfied or noncompliant patient. But how do you end the relationship without putting yourself at risk?
Smart phones or tablets are being used to revolutionize clinical diagnosis and patient care, but they pose a number of risks and benefits.
Find out how your income compares with the more than 9,000 nurse practitioners and physician assistants who completed our 2012 salary survey.
Advancements in diabetes care abound, but busy practice schedules make staying current difficult.
Failure to properly treat patients suffering legitimate chronic pain syndromes can result in a compounding of prescription pain-medication abuse.
These women experienced debilitating pain episodes that challenged even the most knowledgeable clinicians. You can learn from their case histories.
The primary-care provider may be the only contact homebound elders have outside the abuse situation.
Treating patients before they develop a disease is tempting, but the old adage still applies: First, do no harm.
What are the differential diagnoses for a woman aged 60 years with a metallic taste in her mouth and the sensation of a burning tongue?
An understanding of the liver and its functions will provide the tools to perform a basic workup of patients suspected of having hepatic disease.
The problem is challenging, but there are steps clinicians can take to eliminate barriers to medication adherence in children.
Since the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus-associated diarrhea has declined and clinicians must now worry about other diarrhea-causing organisms.