Infectious Disease News Archive

Combination antibiotic treatment beneficial for community-acquired pneumonia

A combination antibiotic regimen with a macrolide was shown to improve short- and long-term outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

Epsom salt may cause liver injury in predisposed patients

A 38-year old nonalcoholic patient consumed Epsom salt in large quantities for a short period of time and developed jaundice and steatohepatitis.

Clinical tool developed to determine pediatric community-acquired pneumonia severity

Researchers developed a clinical tool to predict prolonged hospital stays in patients with pediatric community-acquired pneumonia.

Infection prevention in ambulatory settings: A policy statement from the AAP

The AAP has updated guidelines on infection prevention and control that include the endorsement of immunization for healthcare personnel and guidance during outbreaks of infectious diseases.

High percentage of HIV-diagnosed women not receiving care

More than half of women receiving a new HIV diagnosis have already received this diagnosis in the past but are not undergoing HIV medical care.

Herbal, dietary supplements commonly mislabeled

Mislabeling of herbal and dietary supplements is common, occurring in more than half of products tested.

Aspirin use associated with a reduced risk of HCC in hepatitis B patients

Aspirin therapy is associated with a reduced risk of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

Updated hepatitis C recommendations include kidney transplant, pregnant patients

The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the Infectious Diseases Society of America have added updates to the hepatitis C guidelines to include kidney transplant, pregnant, and pediatric patients.

HIV care outcomes low for Hispanics and Latinos

Infection was diagnosed at an early stage for fewer males with infection attributed to heterosexual contact vs male-to-male sexual contact.

No evidence that the influenza vaccine causes VTE

In the 1 to 10 days after flu vaccine administration, there was no increased risk for VTE.

Positive mood associated with enhanced responses to influenza vaccination

Greater positive mood significantly predicted greater antibody responses to the influenza vaccination.

Tdap vaccination during pregnancy protects infants from pertussis

With a continuing resurgence in pertussis, efforts should focus on maximizing Tdap uptake among pregnant women.

Half of adults with work-related asthma receive pneumococcal vaccination

The researchers found that 42% of the estimated 12 million ever-employed adults with current asthma had received a pneumococcal vaccine.

Chronic pain management in HIV: Updated recommendations

The HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Disease Society of America recommends that people living with HIV be screened for pain and offered both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment options.

Single-tablet HIV treatment superior to standard therapy

Virological response, efficacy, noninferiority, and tolerability were tested for bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide in patients with HIV.

FDA approves Opdivo for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

The FDA has approved Opdivo (nivolumab) injection for the treatment of patients with HCC who have been previously treated with sorafenib.

CDC: US cases of STDs exceed 2 million

According to the report, 1.6 million cases were chlamydia, and there were 470,000 cases of gonorrhea and almost 28,000 primary and secondary syphilis cases.

Notification rates of HIV diagnoses increased in 16 European countries

In 16 countries, notification rates for new HIV diagnoses in older adults increased significantly, clustering in central and eastern European countries.

Combating the hepatitis A outbreak in San Diego

The 3-part plan to halt the outbreak of hepatitis A focuses on immunization, sanitation and education with most of the efforts focused on the homeless population who are the most at-risk population.

Hepatocellular carcinoma risk unclear after hepatitis C treatment

The results show no evidence to support a hypothesis of differential impact of interferon and direct-acting antiviral-based cure on risk for HCC occurrence and recurrence.

Once-daily HIV tablet safe for children

Elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide was well tolerated in children and maintained high virological suppression.

Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease increases cancer risk in adulthood

Patients with childhood-onset IBD have an increased risk of cancer, especially gastrointestinal cancers, lymphoid neoplasms, and skin cancer,

Vitamin D supplements may improve bone health in HIV-infected youth

High-dose vitamin D supplements improve bone mineral density in youth with HIV.

Clinical practice guideline for antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women with HIV

Alternative treatments should be offered to pregnant women with HIV instead of tenofovir or emtricitabine.

Smartphone-based electronic reader reliable for point-of-care tests in HIV and T pallidum infections

The findings shed new light on the applicability of smartphone-based electronic readers in point-of-care testing.

2017-2018 recommendations for pediatric influenza vaccination

The guidelines include a strong recommendation for annual seasonal influenza immunization for everyone 6 months and older.

Influenza vaccination rates drop in children when nasal spray is unavailable

Total influenza vaccination rates among children in the 2016 to 2017 influenza season dropped 1.6% from the year before.

Newer influenza diagnostic tests more accurate than traditional tests

Digital immunoassays and rapid nucleic acid amplification tests have higher sensitivities for detecting influenza than rapid influenza diagnostic tests.

PrEP adherence in adolescent MSM decreases over time

Adherence decreased over time in adolescent MSM who participated in a 48-week HIV PrEP intervention.

Coffee consumption associated with reduced liver cancer risk, no link to biliary tract cancer

No significant association was observed between coffee consumption and risk of biliary tract cancer, but there was evidence of an inverse correlation between coffee consumption and liver cancer risk.

Mediterranean diet, antioxidant supplements beneficial for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

A Mediterranean diet with antioxidant supplementation contributes to improving lipid profile and insulin sensitivity parameters in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Demand for liver transplant for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis expected to continue

The increase in the demand for liver transplantation for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is expected to continue with the current population obesity trends.

CDC releases updated influenza vaccine recommendations for 2017-2018

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has released the guidelines for the 2017-2018 season.

FDA approves Chagas disease treatment for children

The FDA has approved benznidazole to treat the tropical parasitic infection Chagas disease in children.

FDA approves Vabomere for UTI treatment

This approval provides an additional treatment option for patients with complicated urinary tract infection.

AAP: Hepatitis B vaccine should be given within first 24 hours of life

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine should be given within the first 24 hours of life.

Sepsis, pneumonia lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease in men

Men who are admitted to the hospital with a serious infection may have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the years immediately following the infection.

Hypoxia, increased work of breathing outweigh tachypnea, auscultatory findings in diagnosing pneumonia

No single clinical observation reliably differentiates pneumonia from other causes of respiratory illness in children.

Infection risk increases with reduced kidney function

Researchers observed excess community-acquired infections incidence in individuals with mild to severe chronic kidney disease.

Influenza A virus transmitted from swine to humans at agricultural fair

Researchers found the H3N2 virus in swine at state fairs in Ohio and Michigan, which was transmitted to humans.

Primary care providers and nurse practitioners can expand HCV treatment access

Primary care providers and nurse practitioners achieve the same sustained virologic response rates as specialists.

Live attenuated influenza vaccine ineffective in children during 2015-2016 season

The live attenuated vaccine was ineffective among children between 2 and 17 years of age during the 2015-2016 season.

Previous maternal influenza vaccine does not weaken newborn benefit

Researchers found that in a cohort of pregnant women, receipt of influenza vaccine the previous year predicts higher baseline antibody titers and decreased peak antibody responses against all influenza strains.

Sexually risky behavior more common in women with mental disorders than in men

Women with mental illness engage in significantly more sexually risky behaviors than men, and personality risk scores are a significant predictor of total sex acts for women but not men.

Offering rapid HIV testing to patients increases overall testing rate in the emergency department

Rapid HIV testing offered in parallel to patient-clinician consultations increases the testing rate in the emergency department.

WHO releases new guidelines in response to pretreatment HIV drug resistance

The new guidelines address the issue of how to manage pretreatment HIV drug resistance in countries where the prevalence of is 10% or higher.

Child with HIV suppresses virus without antiretroviral therapy for more than 8 years

A child who was diagnosed with HIV at 1 month and received early treatment has suppressed the virus without anti-HIV therapy for 8.5 years.

Alcohol screening and brief intervention: A practice manual for clinicians

The AAFP has created an alcohol screening practice manual to help family physicians prevent alcohol misuse.

Use of palliative care increases in patients with end-stage liver disease

The use of palliative care increased from 2006 to 2012 among patients with end-stage liver disease.

Electronic health record-based prompt increases hepatitis C screenings in baby boomers

The prompt increased hepatitis C screening rates among baby boomers in primary care by 5-fold.

Nodules on the scalp lead to a diagnosis of secondary syphilis

A rare case reports a 51-year-old man who primarily presented with multiple nodules on his scalp.

VZV-related community-acquired pneumonia linked to morbidity, mortality

The hospital and ICU mortality rates of critically ill patients with VZV-CAP were 24% and 17%, respectively.

Herpes zoster linked to increased risk of cardiovascular events

The risks of both stroke and myocardial infarction were highest the first year after the onset of herpes zoster and decreased with time.

Clinician communication affects parental decision-making with pediatric influenza vaccine

About half of patients accepted influenza vaccination for their child if the clinician used a presumptive vs participatory initiation format.

Algal blooms pose summertime health risk

Algal blooms produce toxins that can cause illness in people and animals and can block sunlight or use up oxygen in water, which can kill fish and plants.

Telbivudine prevents hepatitis B transmission during early pregnancy

Telbivudine administered during early and middle pregnancy prevented hepatitis B transmission from mother to infants in all participants receiving antiviral treatment.

Injectable antiretroviral therapy for as HIV effective as oral medications

The investigators found that after 32 weeks, HIV remained suppressed in 91% percent of those taking the drugs orally, 94% of those receiving monthly injections, and 95% of patients receiving injections every two months.

Blood-borne viruses more common in patients with severe mental illness

HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C infections are more common among individuals with severe mental illness.

WHO updates Essential Medicines List, recommendations for antibiotics

The update includes 30 new medicines for adults and 25 for children and groups antibiotics into 3 distinct categories.

Adverse events common in hospitalized patients taking antibiotics

Many adverse events could be avoidable with more judicious use of antibiotics.

Early antiretroviral therapy initiation linked to bone loss in HIV patients

Early antiretroviral therapy initiation may increase the rate of bone loss in HIV patients.

Walgreens expands availability of PrEP for HIV prevention

Providers in 17 new Walgreens locations will be able to prescribe PrEP for HIV prevention.

FDA approves first generic version of Truvada for HIV

The drug is indicated for use in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of pediatric and adult patients with HIV-1.

Emergency department visits for herpes zoster increased from 2006-2013

The number of emergency department visits for herpes zoster have increased from 2006 to 2013.

Risk-scoring model predicts advanced colorectal neoplasia in younger adults

The score could help predict advanced colorectal neoplasia in adults younger than 50 years of age.

HIV testing rates low in young men who have sex with men

The CDC found that 28% of young men who have sex with men have undergone HIV testing, though they account for 83% of new diagnoses.

Frequent coffee and herbal tea consumption linked to lower liver stiffness

The Rotterdam Study found that frequent coffee and herbal tea consumption is associated with lower liver stiffness in the general population.

High HCV cure rates in patients with HIV coinfection at urban clinic

Hepatitis C treatment in HIV coinfection cases is effective with standardized nurse and pharmacist support for patients in an urban clinic.

Chlorhexidine oral rinse solution ineffective for aspiration pneumonia

Study findings suggest that nursing home residents should receive more guidance in using strategies to prevent aspiration during eating and drinking.

CDC: 101 influenza deaths in children reported for 2016-17

A total of 101 influenza-related deaths occurred among children throughout the 2016-17 flu season.

Hepatitis B vaccine reduces risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents

The universal vaccination against hepatitis B virus infection prevented non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents.

Maternal antibodies inhibit antigenic responses to vaccines in infants

Vaccines given shortly after birth demonstrated a strong inhibitory response to maternal antibodies.

Updated meningococcal vaccine guidelines reflect more dosing options

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices released updated guidelines to include recommendations for the 3-dose formulation of serogroup B meningococcal vaccine.

Amphotericin B superior to itraconazole for HIV-associated talaromycosis

Treatment with amphotericin B was superior to itraconazole as an induction therapy for HIV-associated talaromycosis.

Postpartum antiretroviral therapy is beneficial in HIV-positive women

Continued antiretroviral therapy was found to be safe and beneficial in HIV-positive postpartum women with high CD4+ T cell counts.

Treatment for chronic Lyme disease linked to serious adverse effects

Clinicians and patients should be aware that treatments for chronic Lyme disease can carry serious risks.

A link between antiretroviral therapy and diabetes in HIV patients?

HIV-infected patients on ART had approximately 4 and 1.5 greater odds of developing diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, respectively.

Quality of life in military HIV patients affected by advanced disease and mental comorbidity

Factors linked to health-related quality of life in military HIV patients include advanced HIV disease and mental or medical comorbidity.

Increased coffee consumption may reduce risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

Researchers conducted a meta-analysis to determine the association between coffee consumption and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Tenofovir prevents prenatal transmission of HBV in pregnancy

Pregnant women with a high hepatitis B viral load who receive tenofovir have a reduced risk for passing the virus to their child.

Endoscopy's role in primary sclerosing cholangitis: a clinical guideline

The guideline is intended to be an educational device to provide information that may assist endoscopists in providing care to patients.

CDC: Legionnaires' disease widespread in healthcare facilities

About 76% of US jurisdictions reported healthcare-associated cases of Legionnaires' disease.

Conception methods available for reducing risk of transmission in HIV-discordant couples

Strategies are available to reduce the risk of HIV transmission using sperm from HIV-infected male.

Drug-resistant bacteria found in over 25% of nursing-home residents

Researchers found that multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria colonization prevalence ranged from 11.2% of residents to 59.1%.

HIV/AIDS epidemic could end by 2025 in the United States

Researchers predict that the infection rate could be as low as 12,000 people a year by 2025.

ASCO: Capecitabine may prolong survival in patients with biliary tract cancer

The researchers found that the average survival after surgery for those receiving capecitabine was longer compared with those who only had surgery.

CDC finalizes cholera vaccine recommendation for international travelers

Cholera, an acute, diarrheal illness, is spread by drinking water or eating food that is contaminated with cholera bacteria.

HPV vaccine effective against genital warts in 2 doses

The researchers found that 2 doses of the HPV vaccine were just as protective as 3 doses.

Gluten consumption affects symptom onset in functional dyspepsia

Gluten-rich food may lead to symptom onset, specifically early satiety, in patients with functional dyspepsia.

Primary biliary cholangitis: A clinical practice guideline

The guidelines facilitate a holistic, lifelong approach to the management of patients with primary biliary cholangitis.

First antibiotic prescription ineffective in 25% of pneumonia cases

About 1 in 4 adult patients with pneumonia do not respond to initial prescription of antibiotic treatment.

EASL releases updated guidelines for managing hepatitis B virus infection

The updated guidelines include substantial changes in the management of hepatitis B based on the latest scientific evidence.

Zinc effective in children with presymptomatic Wilson disease

Treatment was effective in patients under 6 years who received 50 mg/day of zinc as an initial dose.

Preventing mosquito bites: recommendations from the CDC

The CDC recommends using an EPA-registered insect repellent, which is proven safe and effective, even for pregnant and breastfeeding women.

Nitrate inhalants (poppers) associated with increased virus-associated cancer risk in HIV-uninfected MSM

Among HIV-uninfected men aged 50 to 70, heavy popper use was associated with an increased risk of virus-associated cancer with causes linked to HPV, HHV-8, and Epstein-Barr virus.

HCV transmission knowledge varies among opioid-dependent pregnant patients

Most opioid-dependent pregnant patients understand that intravenous drug use is a major transmission modality of HCV.

Warfarin dosing in HIV patients with deep venous thrombosis

Results showed that mean induction times, analyzed in 170 patients, were 12.87 days in the HIV-infected patients and 11.19 days in the HIV-uninfected patients.

FDA approves label changes for two HIV drugs

The FDA Drug Interactions section has been updated to include revised information on concomitant use of corticosteroids with these drugs.

Side effects may affect medication nonadherence in patients with chronic disease

Almost half of participants reported that they never received information regarding the side effects of their medication from their prescriber.

Trained lay healthcare providers can administer HIV testing

A World Health Organization expert panel recommended lay health care workers be allowed to conduct HIV testing services using rapid diagnostic tests.

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