Infectious Disease News Archive

Early antiretroviral therapy initiation linked to bone loss in HIV patients

Early antiretroviral therapy initiation may increase the rate of bone loss in HIV patients.

Walgreens expands availability of PrEP for HIV prevention

Providers in 17 new Walgreens locations will be able to prescribe PrEP for HIV prevention.

FDA approves first generic version of Truvada for HIV

The drug is indicated for use in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of pediatric and adult patients with HIV-1.

Emergency department visits for herpes zoster increased from 2006-2013

The number of emergency department visits for herpes zoster have increased from 2006 to 2013.

Risk-scoring model predicts advanced colorectal neoplasia in younger adults

The score could help predict advanced colorectal neoplasia in adults younger than 50 years of age.

HIV testing rates low in young men who have sex with men

The CDC found that 28% of young men who have sex with men have undergone HIV testing, though they account for 83% of new diagnoses.

Frequent coffee and herbal tea consumption linked to lower liver stiffness

The Rotterdam Study found that frequent coffee and herbal tea consumption is associated with lower liver stiffness in the general population.

High HCV cure rates in patients with HIV coinfection at urban clinic

Hepatitis C treatment in HIV coinfection cases is effective with standardized nurse and pharmacist support for patients in an urban clinic.

Chlorhexidine oral rinse solution ineffective for aspiration pneumonia

Study findings suggest that nursing home residents should receive more guidance in using strategies to prevent aspiration during eating and drinking.

CDC: 101 influenza deaths in children reported for 2016-17

A total of 101 influenza-related deaths occurred among children throughout the 2016-17 flu season.

Hepatitis B vaccine reduces risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents

The universal vaccination against hepatitis B virus infection prevented non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents.

Maternal antibodies inhibit antigenic responses to vaccines in infants

Vaccines given shortly after birth demonstrated a strong inhibitory response to maternal antibodies.

Updated meningococcal vaccine guidelines reflect more dosing options

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices released updated guidelines to include recommendations for the 3-dose formulation of serogroup B meningococcal vaccine.

Amphotericin B superior to itraconazole for HIV-associated talaromycosis

Treatment with amphotericin B was superior to itraconazole as an induction therapy for HIV-associated talaromycosis.

Postpartum antiretroviral therapy is beneficial in HIV-positive women

Continued antiretroviral therapy was found to be safe and beneficial in HIV-positive postpartum women with high CD4+ T cell counts.

Treatment for chronic Lyme disease linked to serious adverse effects

Clinicians and patients should be aware that treatments for chronic Lyme disease can carry serious risks.

A link between antiretroviral therapy and diabetes in HIV patients?

HIV-infected patients on ART had approximately 4 and 1.5 greater odds of developing diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, respectively.

Quality of life in military HIV patients affected by advanced disease and mental comorbidity

Factors linked to health-related quality of life in military HIV patients include advanced HIV disease and mental or medical comorbidity.

Increased coffee consumption may reduce risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

Researchers conducted a meta-analysis to determine the association between coffee consumption and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Tenofovir prevents prenatal transmission of HBV in pregnancy

Pregnant women with a high hepatitis B viral load who receive tenofovir have a reduced risk for passing the virus to their child.

Endoscopy's role in primary sclerosing cholangitis: a clinical guideline

The guideline is intended to be an educational device to provide information that may assist endoscopists in providing care to patients.

CDC: Legionnaires' disease widespread in healthcare facilities

About 76% of US jurisdictions reported healthcare-associated cases of Legionnaires' disease.

Conception methods available for reducing risk of transmission in HIV-discordant couples

Strategies are available to reduce the risk of HIV transmission using sperm from HIV-infected male.

Drug-resistant bacteria found in over 25% of nursing-home residents

Researchers found that multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria colonization prevalence ranged from 11.2% of residents to 59.1%.

HIV/AIDS epidemic could end by 2025 in the United States

Researchers predict that the infection rate could be as low as 12,000 people a year by 2025.

ASCO: Capecitabine may prolong survival in patients with biliary tract cancer

The researchers found that the average survival after surgery for those receiving capecitabine was longer compared with those who only had surgery.

CDC finalizes cholera vaccine recommendation for international travelers

Cholera, an acute, diarrheal illness, is spread by drinking water or eating food that is contaminated with cholera bacteria.

HPV vaccine effective against genital warts in 2 doses

The researchers found that 2 doses of the HPV vaccine were just as protective as 3 doses.

Gluten consumption affects symptom onset in functional dyspepsia

Gluten-rich food may lead to symptom onset, specifically early satiety, in patients with functional dyspepsia.

Primary biliary cholangitis: A clinical practice guideline

The guidelines facilitate a holistic, lifelong approach to the management of patients with primary biliary cholangitis.

First antibiotic prescription ineffective in 25% of pneumonia cases

About 1 in 4 adult patients with pneumonia do not respond to initial prescription of antibiotic treatment.

EASL releases updated guidelines for managing hepatitis B virus infection

The updated guidelines include substantial changes in the management of hepatitis B based on the latest scientific evidence.

Zinc effective in children with presymptomatic Wilson disease

Treatment was effective in patients under 6 years who received 50 mg/day of zinc as an initial dose.

Preventing mosquito bites: recommendations from the CDC

The CDC recommends using an EPA-registered insect repellent, which is proven safe and effective, even for pregnant and breastfeeding women.

Nitrate inhalants (poppers) associated with increased virus-associated cancer risk in HIV-uninfected MSM

Among HIV-uninfected men aged 50 to 70, heavy popper use was associated with an increased risk of virus-associated cancer with causes linked to HPV, HHV-8, and Epstein-Barr virus.

HCV transmission knowledge varies among opioid-dependent pregnant patients

Most opioid-dependent pregnant patients understand that intravenous drug use is a major transmission modality of HCV.

Warfarin dosing in HIV patients with deep venous thrombosis

Results showed that mean induction times, analyzed in 170 patients, were 12.87 days in the HIV-infected patients and 11.19 days in the HIV-uninfected patients.

FDA approves label changes for two HIV drugs

The FDA Drug Interactions section has been updated to include revised information on concomitant use of corticosteroids with these drugs.

Side effects may affect medication nonadherence in patients with chronic disease

Almost half of participants reported that they never received information regarding the side effects of their medication from their prescriber.

Trained lay healthcare providers can administer HIV testing

A World Health Organization expert panel recommended lay health care workers be allowed to conduct HIV testing services using rapid diagnostic tests.

Preventing Lyme disease and tick bites: tips from the CDC

Individuals have a higher risk of tick bites and tickborne diseases from May through July.

Methadone maintenance treatment reduces mortality in opioid-dependent patients

In patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment, researchers observed, on average, 25 fewer deaths/1000 person years than in patients who discontinue it.

Inhaled corticosteroid use linked to increased pneumonia risk in asthma patients

The use of inhaled corticosteroids is associated with an increased risk of pneumonia in asthma patients.

Some antidiabetic agents may increase pneumonia risk in type 2 diabetes

Compared with current use of metformin + sulfonylurea, the use of thiazolidinediones + metformin was associated with an increased risk of community-acquired pneumonia.

Benzodiazepines may increase risk of pneumonia in Alzheimer disease

Clinicians should consider risk of pneumonia when weighing the benefits and risks of benzodiazepines in patients with Alzheimer disease.

Statins may lower risk of cirrhosis decompensation in HBV and HCV

Statin use decreased rates of decompensation in patients with liver cirrhosis due to HBV and HCV infections and in patients with alcohol-induced cirrhosis.

AGA Institute releases practice update for managing patients cured of HCV infection

Patients with chronic HCV infection who have achieved a sustained virologic response with treatment may still be at risk for complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma.

Norepinephrine shortage led to higher mortality in septic shock patients

Patients with septic shock taking phenylephrine during the 2011 norepinephrine shortage experienced higher in-hospital mortality rates.

Metastatic pancreatic cancer: a new clinical practice guideline

The guideline will help clinicians determine the appropriate treatment of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.

NASEM report aims to eliminate hepatitis B and C by 2030

Aggressive testing, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods, such as needle exchange for those who inject drugs, are some of the options that the NASEM explored to target hepatitis elimination.

FDA approves first direct-acting antivirals for pediatric HCV patients

Harvoni and Sovaldi have been approved for pediatric patients with HCV genotypes.

Almost half of men and women under 60 in the US infected with HPV

However, the HPV vaccine has the potential to reverse the epidemic and prevent thousands of cancers in the United States each year.

Oral, direct-acting antivirals effective for hepatitis C virus infection

Regimens for the treatment of hepatitis C that included ribavirin had more mild or moderate adverse events than those without.

Gastric acid suppressants may increase risk of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection

A meta-analysis suggests that patients who take gastric acid suppressants may have a higher risk for recurrent CDI.

Pharmacists can help optimize care in patients with hepatitis C virus

Drug-drug interactions are common in patients taking hepatitis C virus medications, and consulting with a pharmacist can be beneficial.

PCV10 vaccine decreases pneumonia rate in children

PCV10 decreases rate of pneumonia among vaccine-eligible children and older, unvaccinated children.

High cardiac troponin levels may predict mortality in community-acquired pneumonia

Elevated cardiac troponin T is also strongly prognostic of cardiac mortality observed in association with community-acquired pneumonia.

Antibiotic prescribing in primary care varies for community-acquired pneumonia

Factors that contribute to antibiotic choice for CAP include patient age, previous antibiotic receipt, and private insurance.

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine reduces Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia

Researchers observed a 95.3% reduction of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia after implementation of routine immunization with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

Septic shock: early, goal-directed therapy versus usual care

Early, goal-directed therapy did not result in better outcomes for mortality for patients with septic shock.

Annual rate of perinatal HIV infection decreased in United States

However, missed opportunities for prevention were common among infected infants and their mothers in recent years.

High BMI in late adolescence associated with increased risk of severe liver disease in men

A high BMI is associated with an increased risk for severe liver disease, and the risk is higher in those who also have type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Adolescents not seeking STD services due to confidentiality issues

Adolescents might not seek care or might delay seeking care for STD services because of concerns about confidentiality, including fears that their parents might find out.

HPV educational session may boost vaccination rates in high school students

The students improved their basic knowledge of HPV and understood the benefits of the HPV vaccine.

FODMAP diet effective for irritable bowel syndrome

Implementation of the FODMAP diet is an effective strategy to manage symptoms of IBS, including bloating and abdominal pain.

Gluten challenge not effective for confirming non-celiac gluten sensitivity

Thirty-eight of 231 NCGS patients showed gluten-specific symptoms when completing the placebo-controlled gluten challenge.

Evaluating abnormal liver chemistries: a clinical guideline

The American College of Gastroenterology has released recommendations of preferred approaches for diagnosing and evaluating patients with abnormal liver test results.

Inhaled corticosteroids not tied to pneumonia in children with asthma

Results showed no link between inhaled corticosteroids and risk of pharyngitis, otitis media, or sinusitis.

More antimicrobial treatments needed in community-acquired pneumonia

Findings from a US claims-based retrospective study call for more effective antimicrobial treatments for patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

Acute pancreatitis may reveal pancreatic cancer at earlier stage

Surgical intervention after 24.5 days of acute pancreatitis may be beneficial for reducing postoperative complications.

Personalized treatment for very early stage hepatocellular carcinoma

Investigators have proposed an algorithm to facilitate the decision-making process of clinical care for patients with very early hepatocellular carcinoma.

Hepatitis C infection linked to nonhepatic cancers among elderly patients

HCV infection is associated with cancers such as bile duct and pancreatic cancers and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Uric acid concentration and fructose intake linked to NASH in children

Serum uric acid concentrations and fructose consumption are associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

CDC expands investigation into Seoul virus outbreak

Symptoms of Seoul virus infection typically begin within 1 to 2 weeks after contact with infectious material and include fever, headache, and back pain.

Stroke risk increases after herpes zoster in patients with autoimmune disease

Herpes zoster was linked to an increased stroke risk in first 90 days among patients with an autoimmune disease.

High-potency statins increase hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia

Higher-potency statins increased hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia compared with lower-potency statins.

Pneumococcal vaccination reduces pneumonia risk in COPD patients

Polyvalent pneumococcal vaccines offered protection against community-acquired pneumonia in COPD patients.

Pneumonia vaccine may not be effective in rheumatoid arthritis patients

The PPSV23 vaccine may not prevent pneumonia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Sepsis and septic shock: new guidelines for clinical management

Updated international guidelines for managing sepsis and septic shock have been released by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine.

Use of fluoroquinolones linked to C. difficile outbreak

A C. difficile epidemic was an unintended consequence of the intensive use of fluoroquinolones.

Pritelivir better for treating genital HSV-2 than valacyclovir

HSV shedding was detected in 2.4% of swabs during pritelivir treatment compared with 5.3% during valacyclovir treatment.

Mortality rates remain high among HIV-positive patients

The HIV-positive population of the United Kingdom has a higher risk of death than the general population, despite availability of free treatment and care.

Listerine mouthwash effective in controlling gonorrhea

With daily use Listerine may increase gonococcal clearance and have important implications for prevention strategies.

Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty results in successful weight loss

The procedure could be used as alternative to bariatric surgery for selected patients with obesity.

USPSTF recommends against routine serologic screening for genital herpes simplex virus

The USPSTF has released a final recommendation against routine serologic screening for genital herpes simplex virus infection.

HCV patients with diabetes may have increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

Diabetes could increase the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis C.

CDC: Influenza vaccine rate low this season

Forty percent of people have reported receiving the flu vaccine thus far, including 37% of children.

VA offers hepatitis, HIV screening to veterans who received improper dental care

A VA center in Wisconsin is advising veterans to be screened for hepatitis and HIV after receiving care from a dentist who did not follow VA procedures.

Novel method identifies patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Researchers described a new method to quantify hepatic fibrogenesis flux rates in the liver tissue and noninvasively in blood.

Newborn screening identifies unknown cause of severe combined immunodeficiency

The screening identified BCL11B as the previously unknown cause of human SCID.

Ledipasvir-sofosbuvir treatment safe for kidney recipients with hepatitis C

Treatment for 12 or 24 weeks is safe and efficacious for kidney transplant recipients with hepatitis C virus.

New clinical trial underway to study efficacy of HIV vaccine

The study will be the largest HIV vaccine clinical trial to take place in South Africa.

Mortality rate from infectious diseases remains unchanged in the United States

The number of patients dying from infections has remained stable, but some disease threats have changed.

High-dose vitamin D may decrease acute respiratory infections in elderly

Vitamin D supplementation may be associated with reduced ARIs among long-term care facility residents.

Antenatal antiretroviral therapy reduces early HIV transmission

Antenatal ART reduces rates of early HIV transmission but may increase risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes.

Smoking more harmful for HIV patients than the virus

Men and women who quit smoking after entering HIV care at age 40 years gained 5.7 years and 4.6 years of life expectancy, respectively, compared with those who continued to smoke.

Outbreak of Candida auris identified in the US

The CDC requested that laboratories report cases and send patient samples to state and local health departments and the CDC.

Probable interaction identified between hepatitis C treatments

Researchers identified an interaction between ribavirin with paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir and dasabuvir.

More than half of US citizens have a chronic health condition

Conditions such as chronic disease, mental illness, or substance abuse commonly overlap with each other and with poverty, which contributes to poor health.

CDC presents updated recommendations for meningococcal vaccine in HIV

HIV-infected individuals should receive the meningococcal conjugate vaccine (serogroups A, C, W, and Y).

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