Infectious Disease News Archive

2017-2018 recommendations for pediatric influenza vaccination

The guidelines include a strong recommendation for annual seasonal influenza immunization for everyone 6 months and older.

Influenza vaccination rates drop in children when nasal spray is unavailable

Total influenza vaccination rates among children in the 2016 to 2017 influenza season dropped 1.6% from the year before.

Newer influenza diagnostic tests more accurate than traditional tests

Digital immunoassays and rapid nucleic acid amplification tests have higher sensitivities for detecting influenza than rapid influenza diagnostic tests.

PrEP adherence in adolescent MSM decreases over time

Adherence decreased over time in adolescent MSM who participated in a 48-week HIV PrEP intervention.

Coffee consumption associated with reduced liver cancer risk, no link to biliary tract cancer

No significant association was observed between coffee consumption and risk of biliary tract cancer, but there was evidence of an inverse correlation between coffee consumption and liver cancer risk.

Mediterranean diet, antioxidant supplements beneficial for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

A Mediterranean diet with antioxidant supplementation contributes to improving lipid profile and insulin sensitivity parameters in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Demand for liver transplant for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis expected to continue

The increase in the demand for liver transplantation for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is expected to continue with the current population obesity trends.

CDC releases updated influenza vaccine recommendations for 2017-2018

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has released the guidelines for the 2017-2018 season.

FDA approves Chagas disease treatment for children

The FDA has approved benznidazole to treat the tropical parasitic infection Chagas disease in children.

FDA approves Vabomere for UTI treatment

This approval provides an additional treatment option for patients with complicated urinary tract infection.

AAP: Hepatitis B vaccine should be given within first 24 hours of life

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine should be given within the first 24 hours of life.

Sepsis, pneumonia lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease in men

Men who are admitted to the hospital with a serious infection may have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the years immediately following the infection.

Hypoxia, increased work of breathing outweigh tachypnea, auscultatory findings in diagnosing pneumonia

No single clinical observation reliably differentiates pneumonia from other causes of respiratory illness in children.

Infection risk increases with reduced kidney function

Researchers observed excess community-acquired infections incidence in individuals with mild to severe chronic kidney disease.

Influenza A virus transmitted from swine to humans at agricultural fair

Researchers found the H3N2 virus in swine at state fairs in Ohio and Michigan, which was transmitted to humans.

Primary care providers and nurse practitioners can expand HCV treatment access

Primary care providers and nurse practitioners achieve the same sustained virologic response rates as specialists.

Live attenuated influenza vaccine ineffective in children during 2015-2016 season

The live attenuated vaccine was ineffective among children between 2 and 17 years of age during the 2015-2016 season.

Previous maternal influenza vaccine does not weaken newborn benefit

Researchers found that in a cohort of pregnant women, receipt of influenza vaccine the previous year predicts higher baseline antibody titers and decreased peak antibody responses against all influenza strains.

Sexually risky behavior more common in women with mental disorders than in men

Women with mental illness engage in significantly more sexually risky behaviors than men, and personality risk scores are a significant predictor of total sex acts for women but not men.

Offering rapid HIV testing to patients increases overall testing rate in the emergency department

Rapid HIV testing offered in parallel to patient-clinician consultations increases the testing rate in the emergency department.

WHO releases new guidelines in response to pretreatment HIV drug resistance

The new guidelines address the issue of how to manage pretreatment HIV drug resistance in countries where the prevalence of is 10% or higher.

Child with HIV suppresses virus without antiretroviral therapy for more than 8 years

A child who was diagnosed with HIV at 1 month and received early treatment has suppressed the virus without anti-HIV therapy for 8.5 years.

Alcohol screening and brief intervention: A practice manual for clinicians

The AAFP has created an alcohol screening practice manual to help family physicians prevent alcohol misuse.

Use of palliative care increases in patients with end-stage liver disease

The use of palliative care increased from 2006 to 2012 among patients with end-stage liver disease.

Electronic health record-based prompt increases hepatitis C screenings in baby boomers

The prompt increased hepatitis C screening rates among baby boomers in primary care by 5-fold.

Nodules on the scalp lead to a diagnosis of secondary syphilis

A rare case reports a 51-year-old man who primarily presented with multiple nodules on his scalp.

VZV-related community-acquired pneumonia linked to morbidity, mortality

The hospital and ICU mortality rates of critically ill patients with VZV-CAP were 24% and 17%, respectively.

Herpes zoster linked to increased risk of cardiovascular events

The risks of both stroke and myocardial infarction were highest the first year after the onset of herpes zoster and decreased with time.

Clinician communication affects parental decision-making with pediatric influenza vaccine

About half of patients accepted influenza vaccination for their child if the clinician used a presumptive vs participatory initiation format.

Algal blooms pose summertime health risk

Algal blooms produce toxins that can cause illness in people and animals and can block sunlight or use up oxygen in water, which can kill fish and plants.

Telbivudine prevents hepatitis B transmission during early pregnancy

Telbivudine administered during early and middle pregnancy prevented hepatitis B transmission from mother to infants in all participants receiving antiviral treatment.

Injectable antiretroviral therapy for as HIV effective as oral medications

The investigators found that after 32 weeks, HIV remained suppressed in 91% percent of those taking the drugs orally, 94% of those receiving monthly injections, and 95% of patients receiving injections every two months.

Blood-borne viruses more common in patients with severe mental illness

HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C infections are more common among individuals with severe mental illness.

WHO updates Essential Medicines List, recommendations for antibiotics

The update includes 30 new medicines for adults and 25 for children and groups antibiotics into 3 distinct categories.

Adverse events common in hospitalized patients taking antibiotics

Many adverse events could be avoidable with more judicious use of antibiotics.

Early antiretroviral therapy initiation linked to bone loss in HIV patients

Early antiretroviral therapy initiation may increase the rate of bone loss in HIV patients.

Walgreens expands availability of PrEP for HIV prevention

Providers in 17 new Walgreens locations will be able to prescribe PrEP for HIV prevention.

FDA approves first generic version of Truvada for HIV

The drug is indicated for use in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of pediatric and adult patients with HIV-1.

Emergency department visits for herpes zoster increased from 2006-2013

The number of emergency department visits for herpes zoster have increased from 2006 to 2013.

Risk-scoring model predicts advanced colorectal neoplasia in younger adults

The score could help predict advanced colorectal neoplasia in adults younger than 50 years of age.

HIV testing rates low in young men who have sex with men

The CDC found that 28% of young men who have sex with men have undergone HIV testing, though they account for 83% of new diagnoses.

Frequent coffee and herbal tea consumption linked to lower liver stiffness

The Rotterdam Study found that frequent coffee and herbal tea consumption is associated with lower liver stiffness in the general population.

High HCV cure rates in patients with HIV coinfection at urban clinic

Hepatitis C treatment in HIV coinfection cases is effective with standardized nurse and pharmacist support for patients in an urban clinic.

Chlorhexidine oral rinse solution ineffective for aspiration pneumonia

Study findings suggest that nursing home residents should receive more guidance in using strategies to prevent aspiration during eating and drinking.

CDC: 101 influenza deaths in children reported for 2016-17

A total of 101 influenza-related deaths occurred among children throughout the 2016-17 flu season.

Hepatitis B vaccine reduces risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents

The universal vaccination against hepatitis B virus infection prevented non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents.

Maternal antibodies inhibit antigenic responses to vaccines in infants

Vaccines given shortly after birth demonstrated a strong inhibitory response to maternal antibodies.

Updated meningococcal vaccine guidelines reflect more dosing options

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices released updated guidelines to include recommendations for the 3-dose formulation of serogroup B meningococcal vaccine.

Amphotericin B superior to itraconazole for HIV-associated talaromycosis

Treatment with amphotericin B was superior to itraconazole as an induction therapy for HIV-associated talaromycosis.

Postpartum antiretroviral therapy is beneficial in HIV-positive women

Continued antiretroviral therapy was found to be safe and beneficial in HIV-positive postpartum women with high CD4+ T cell counts.

Treatment for chronic Lyme disease linked to serious adverse effects

Clinicians and patients should be aware that treatments for chronic Lyme disease can carry serious risks.

A link between antiretroviral therapy and diabetes in HIV patients?

HIV-infected patients on ART had approximately 4 and 1.5 greater odds of developing diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, respectively.

Quality of life in military HIV patients affected by advanced disease and mental comorbidity

Factors linked to health-related quality of life in military HIV patients include advanced HIV disease and mental or medical comorbidity.

Increased coffee consumption may reduce risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

Researchers conducted a meta-analysis to determine the association between coffee consumption and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Tenofovir prevents prenatal transmission of HBV in pregnancy

Pregnant women with a high hepatitis B viral load who receive tenofovir have a reduced risk for passing the virus to their child.

Endoscopy's role in primary sclerosing cholangitis: a clinical guideline

The guideline is intended to be an educational device to provide information that may assist endoscopists in providing care to patients.

CDC: Legionnaires' disease widespread in healthcare facilities

About 76% of US jurisdictions reported healthcare-associated cases of Legionnaires' disease.

Conception methods available for reducing risk of transmission in HIV-discordant couples

Strategies are available to reduce the risk of HIV transmission using sperm from HIV-infected male.

Drug-resistant bacteria found in over 25% of nursing-home residents

Researchers found that multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria colonization prevalence ranged from 11.2% of residents to 59.1%.

HIV/AIDS epidemic could end by 2025 in the United States

Researchers predict that the infection rate could be as low as 12,000 people a year by 2025.

ASCO: Capecitabine may prolong survival in patients with biliary tract cancer

The researchers found that the average survival after surgery for those receiving capecitabine was longer compared with those who only had surgery.

CDC finalizes cholera vaccine recommendation for international travelers

Cholera, an acute, diarrheal illness, is spread by drinking water or eating food that is contaminated with cholera bacteria.

HPV vaccine effective against genital warts in 2 doses

The researchers found that 2 doses of the HPV vaccine were just as protective as 3 doses.

Gluten consumption affects symptom onset in functional dyspepsia

Gluten-rich food may lead to symptom onset, specifically early satiety, in patients with functional dyspepsia.

Primary biliary cholangitis: A clinical practice guideline

The guidelines facilitate a holistic, lifelong approach to the management of patients with primary biliary cholangitis.

First antibiotic prescription ineffective in 25% of pneumonia cases

About 1 in 4 adult patients with pneumonia do not respond to initial prescription of antibiotic treatment.

EASL releases updated guidelines for managing hepatitis B virus infection

The updated guidelines include substantial changes in the management of hepatitis B based on the latest scientific evidence.

Zinc effective in children with presymptomatic Wilson disease

Treatment was effective in patients under 6 years who received 50 mg/day of zinc as an initial dose.

Preventing mosquito bites: recommendations from the CDC

The CDC recommends using an EPA-registered insect repellent, which is proven safe and effective, even for pregnant and breastfeeding women.

Nitrate inhalants (poppers) associated with increased virus-associated cancer risk in HIV-uninfected MSM

Among HIV-uninfected men aged 50 to 70, heavy popper use was associated with an increased risk of virus-associated cancer with causes linked to HPV, HHV-8, and Epstein-Barr virus.

HCV transmission knowledge varies among opioid-dependent pregnant patients

Most opioid-dependent pregnant patients understand that intravenous drug use is a major transmission modality of HCV.

Warfarin dosing in HIV patients with deep venous thrombosis

Results showed that mean induction times, analyzed in 170 patients, were 12.87 days in the HIV-infected patients and 11.19 days in the HIV-uninfected patients.

FDA approves label changes for two HIV drugs

The FDA Drug Interactions section has been updated to include revised information on concomitant use of corticosteroids with these drugs.

Side effects may affect medication nonadherence in patients with chronic disease

Almost half of participants reported that they never received information regarding the side effects of their medication from their prescriber.

Trained lay healthcare providers can administer HIV testing

A World Health Organization expert panel recommended lay health care workers be allowed to conduct HIV testing services using rapid diagnostic tests.

Preventing Lyme disease and tick bites: tips from the CDC

Individuals have a higher risk of tick bites and tickborne diseases from May through July.

Methadone maintenance treatment reduces mortality in opioid-dependent patients

In patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment, researchers observed, on average, 25 fewer deaths/1000 person years than in patients who discontinue it.

Inhaled corticosteroid use linked to increased pneumonia risk in asthma patients

The use of inhaled corticosteroids is associated with an increased risk of pneumonia in asthma patients.

Some antidiabetic agents may increase pneumonia risk in type 2 diabetes

Compared with current use of metformin + sulfonylurea, the use of thiazolidinediones + metformin was associated with an increased risk of community-acquired pneumonia.

Benzodiazepines may increase risk of pneumonia in Alzheimer disease

Clinicians should consider risk of pneumonia when weighing the benefits and risks of benzodiazepines in patients with Alzheimer disease.

Statins may lower risk of cirrhosis decompensation in HBV and HCV

Statin use decreased rates of decompensation in patients with liver cirrhosis due to HBV and HCV infections and in patients with alcohol-induced cirrhosis.

AGA Institute releases practice update for managing patients cured of HCV infection

Patients with chronic HCV infection who have achieved a sustained virologic response with treatment may still be at risk for complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma.

Norepinephrine shortage led to higher mortality in septic shock patients

Patients with septic shock taking phenylephrine during the 2011 norepinephrine shortage experienced higher in-hospital mortality rates.

Metastatic pancreatic cancer: a new clinical practice guideline

The guideline will help clinicians determine the appropriate treatment of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.

NASEM report aims to eliminate hepatitis B and C by 2030

Aggressive testing, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods, such as needle exchange for those who inject drugs, are some of the options that the NASEM explored to target hepatitis elimination.

FDA approves first direct-acting antivirals for pediatric HCV patients

Harvoni and Sovaldi have been approved for pediatric patients with HCV genotypes.

Almost half of men and women under 60 in the US infected with HPV

However, the HPV vaccine has the potential to reverse the epidemic and prevent thousands of cancers in the United States each year.

Oral, direct-acting antivirals effective for hepatitis C virus infection

Regimens for the treatment of hepatitis C that included ribavirin had more mild or moderate adverse events than those without.

Gastric acid suppressants may increase risk of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection

A meta-analysis suggests that patients who take gastric acid suppressants may have a higher risk for recurrent CDI.

Pharmacists can help optimize care in patients with hepatitis C virus

Drug-drug interactions are common in patients taking hepatitis C virus medications, and consulting with a pharmacist can be beneficial.

PCV10 vaccine decreases pneumonia rate in children

PCV10 decreases rate of pneumonia among vaccine-eligible children and older, unvaccinated children.

High cardiac troponin levels may predict mortality in community-acquired pneumonia

Elevated cardiac troponin T is also strongly prognostic of cardiac mortality observed in association with community-acquired pneumonia.

Antibiotic prescribing in primary care varies for community-acquired pneumonia

Factors that contribute to antibiotic choice for CAP include patient age, previous antibiotic receipt, and private insurance.

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine reduces Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia

Researchers observed a 95.3% reduction of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia after implementation of routine immunization with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

Septic shock: early, goal-directed therapy versus usual care

Early, goal-directed therapy did not result in better outcomes for mortality for patients with septic shock.

Annual rate of perinatal HIV infection decreased in United States

However, missed opportunities for prevention were common among infected infants and their mothers in recent years.

High BMI in late adolescence associated with increased risk of severe liver disease in men

A high BMI is associated with an increased risk for severe liver disease, and the risk is higher in those who also have type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Adolescents not seeking STD services due to confidentiality issues

Adolescents might not seek care or might delay seeking care for STD services because of concerns about confidentiality, including fears that their parents might find out.

HPV educational session may boost vaccination rates in high school students

The students improved their basic knowledge of HPV and understood the benefits of the HPV vaccine.

FODMAP diet effective for irritable bowel syndrome

Implementation of the FODMAP diet is an effective strategy to manage symptoms of IBS, including bloating and abdominal pain.

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