Infectious Disease News Archive

Few nurses compliant with bloodborne pathogen precautions

Fewer than 20% of surveyed nurses report total adherence to the standard precautions meant to prevent bloodborne pathogen transmission.

Clinicians encouraged to screen for hepatitis C based on birth year

Only 8.3% of eligible patients at 14 health centers were screened for hepatitis C based on guidelines presented in 2013.

More life-threatening scope-related infections than previously thought

A US Senate Committee report shows higher numbers of life-threatening duodenoscpe infections between 2012 and 2015.

Influenza vaccine may reduce all-cause mortality rates in patients with heart failure

Patients with heart failure who receive the influenza vaccine may have a lower risk for all-cause mortality compared with those who do not get the vaccine.

Taking PrEP before and after sex reduces HIV risk for MSM

Men who have sex with men can reduce their risk of contracting HIV by taking PrEP before and after sex instead of every day.

HIV prophylaxis can prevent transmission to breastfeeding infants

Breastfeeding mothers who are HIV-positive can prevent transmission to their infants through a lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine regimen.

AAP guidelines recommend screening children for high cholesterol, depression, HIV

To combat the stigma associated with selective screening, the American Academy of Pediatrics has called for all children to be screened for high cholesterol, depression, and HIV.

FDA approves adjuvant flu vaccine for use in the elderly

The FDA has approved Fluad, a trivalent flu vaccine with the adjuvant MF59, for use in patients aged 65 and older.

More people at risk for HIV need PrEP prescriptions, says CDC

The CDC said that too few Americans who have an increased risk for HIV are taking the PrEP pill to help protect them against HIV.

CDC reports increases in rates of chlamydia, syphilis, and gonorrhea

In 2014, the CDC reported the highest number of cases of chlamydia ever. These increasing rates are fueled by the population of gay and bisexual men.

Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV effective for transgender women

Researchers at the University of California, San Francisco, have found that pre-exposure prophylaxis can be effective in preventing HIV in transgender women when used consistently.

Engineered DART molecules target HIV-infected cells to eliminate viral reservoirs

Molecules engineered to target killer T cells and HIV-infected cells can reduce detectable HIV expression in HIV-positive patients.

Genvoya approved to treat HIV-1 infection

Genvoya, a tablet containing a new form of tenofovir, is now FDA-approved to treat HIV-1 infection in adults and children.

Enterovirus D68 does not increase mortality in children

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) does nto increase the risk of death or need for critical care in children, says a study published in the Candian Medical Association Journal.

Multidisciplinary team launches new HIV vaccine initiative

Scientists from 22 institutions are launching a new research initiative with the goal of taking a new HIV vaccine through human trials in the next 5 years.

Higher stroke risk in children with infections

According to research published in the journal Neurology, children who have had infections or who have not received their vaccinations are at a higher risk for stroke.

Drug-resistant E. coli infection rates 
increase at community hospitals

A study has found that the rate of ESBL-E. coli infections increased from 5.28 to 10.5 per 100,000 patients between 2009 and 2014.

Male adolescents not receiving HPV vaccine with other inoculations

A variety of factors have led to low rates of teenage boys being vaccinated for the human papillomavirus (HPV), said a report published in Pediatrics.

Outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease at Princeton University

An outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease at Princeton University has infected 19 students.

Statins slow progression of liver disease in patients with HIV, Hep C

Statin use in co-infected patients showed a slowed progression of liver disease, according to a study conducted at the Johns Hopkins Moore Clinic for HIV Care.

Antiretroviral therapy recommended for all HIV patients, says WHO

The World Health Organization is seeking to remove all limitations on eligibility for antiretroviral therapy for HIV patients in an effort to encourage treatment as soon after diagnosis as possible.

HIV patient care improved by Affordable Care Act

Low-income HIV patients are faring better under the Affordable Care Act than they did on traditional state assistance.

High number of U.S. children remain unvaccinated against measles

Due to a dip in the number of vaccinated individuals, almost a quarter of children under the age of 3 are currently susceptible to the measles.

Increased life span of HIV patients increases certain cancer risks

As HIV patients are living longer, their risk of developing anal, liver, and colorectal cancer is increasing.

Influenza vaccine can prevent pneumonia hospitalizations

The influenza vaccine may be able to prevent approximately 57% of hospitalizations due to influenza pneumonia.

Early treatment for flu beneficial for seniors

Seniors with the flu should be treated as soon as possible in order to reduce hospital stay length and the need for extended care after discharge.

Higher influenza vaccination rate 
leads to lower risk for seniors

Higher influenza vaccination rates among healthy adults may lower the risk for influenza among older adults, according to a study published online ahead of print September 9 in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

Egg-free influenza vaccine now available

The makers of the egg-free flu vaccine, Flublok, have announced that it is now available nationwide.

Half of patients with HIV only see family clinicians for care

HIV patients who go to family clinicians with more HIV experience are more likely to receive ART.

New vaccines help reduce respiratory, diarrhea-related hospitalizations

The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines has helped to reduce hospitalizations from respiratory infections and diarrhea.

Flu, pneumococcal vaccines recommended by CDC, NFID

Clinicians are advised to lead by example and encourage all patients to get their annual influenza vaccine.

More evidence suggests daily PrEP reduces HIV transmission

HIV-negative gay men are less likely to contract HIV with daily pre-exposure prophylaxis.

AAP calls for mandatory flu vaccines for children, health care workers

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that flu vaccines should be mandatory for children and health care workers.

At age 50, herpes zoster vaccine not cost-effective

For every 1,000 people aged 50 years that get the vaccine, only 25 cases of herpes zoster are prevented.

Daily Truvada prevents HIV infection in high-risk patients

Over more than two years, none of 657 patients contracted HIV while taking Truvada, though some contracted other STDs.

Patients with, without HIV have similar lung microbiomes

In patients with and without HIV, lung microbiomes are very similar, though oral microbiomes differ.

Children with HIV may lack measles, mumps, rubella immunity

Children with HIV may not have adequate immunity against measles, mumps, and rubella, even after vaccination.

Nursing home residents should receive annual flu vaccine

A new study provides evidence that yearly influenza vaccination benefited residents of nursing homes.

Childhood infection hospitalization tied to adult metabolic syndrome

Children who are hospitalized for infection have a greater risk of increased BMI and metabolic syndrome in adulthood.

Chronic pain common in HIV patients

Chronic pain and depression symptoms are common among patients with HIV.

Earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy benefits HIV patients

Two studies have provided more evidence that early initiatio of ART improves outcomes in HIV

Delphi methods can improve gastroenterology, liver workups

Delphi methodology can optimize gastroenterology and hepatology workups.

FDA approves test to differentiate between HIV-1, HIV-2

The FDA has approved a new test that can differentiate between different HIV viruses.

HIV cells may still multiply with antiretroviral therapy

HIV cells can multiply even in patients who are responding to antiretroviral therapy.

Plague death reported in Colorado

The Pueblo City-County Health Department has confirmed the death of an adult due to the plague.

Tenofovir gel reduces risk for genital herpes simplex

Pericoital application of tenofovir gel, previously studied for HIV, linked to reduced risk of herpes infection.

HPV vaccination is lagging among U.S. adolescents

Approximately 40% of girls and 60% of boys aged 13 to 17 have not received the HPV vaccine.

UTIs, STIs in women are often misdiagnosed in ERs

In emergency rooms, UTIs are overdiagnosed while STIs are underdiagnosed in women.

Hospital patients with HIV often die from non-AIDS causes

HIV patients undergoing ART often die from non-AIDS infections and cardiovascular disease.

Chlamydia screening decreases with updated Pap test guidelines

Since the new Pap test guidelines have been established, rates of chlamydia screening have dropped.

Genetic makeup influences HIV vaccine efficacy

Researchers may be able to make HIV vaccines that are effective for specific genetic makeups.

Areas at high risk for Lyme disease are growing

The number of counties in the United States with a high risk for Lyme disease is rising.

Two combination treatments show promise for HIV, HCV coinfection

The combinations of ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir and daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir may effectively treat HIV, HCV coinfection.

Biomarkers indicate cardiovascular, mortality risks in HIV

HIV patients have several biomarkers that indicate higher risks for cardiovascular problems and mortality.

One and two doses of HPV-16/18 vaccine as effective as three

The Cervarix vaccine may be as effective in one or two doses as it is with three.

Sequence of shots may play role in effective HIV vaccine

Series of immunizations might encourage HIV-fighting antibodies.

Decreased flu vaccine efficacy due to differing strains

The strain of H3N2 used in last year's flu vaccine differed from the circulating strain.

California votes to reduce vaccine exemptions

A bill passed in California bans vaccine exemptions due to religious and personal reasons.

A more effective flu vaccine?

Flublok Quadrivalent vaccine was 33% more effective in preventing flu than the traditional vaccine.

Acid suppression medications raise risk of pediatric C. difficile

Children using acid suppression medications have a higher risk of incident Clostridium difficile infections.

Diabetes may increase infection-related mortality risk

After adjustment for age and sex, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were higher in type 1 and type 2 diabetes for all outcomes.

Drug-resistant foodborne bacteria on the rise

In 2013, one-quarter of Campylobacter samples from infected people were resistant to quinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, the agency said.

Many college students unaware of human papillomavirus risks

In survey, more than half didn't get vaccinated; many were unaware of risk

Provider intervention may not ease maternal caution to vaccines

Vaccine adherence didn't increase with a provider-targeted intervention; personal medical and belief exemption rates tended to overlap in California.

Connecticut passes cytomegalovirus screening law for newborns

Congenital cytomegalovirus is the leading cause of mental retardation and disability in children.

CDC: Beware of norovirus in untreated swimming water

Safe hygiene practices can prevent norovirus outbreaks, according to the CDC.

Updated guidelines for hepatitis B screening among patients with cancer

HBV screening is not supported for patients who have neither HBV risk factors nor anticipate cancer therapy associated with a high risk of reactivation.

Measles depletes immune system up to three years post-infection

Children's immune systems appeared to be weakened for as long as 28 months following a measles infection, during which time they were at increased risk for death from a viral or bacterial disease

Clostridium difficile infections most prevalent in Northeast

C. difficile costs as much as $4.8 billion in estimated extra health care costs per year.

Fecal transplantation effective treatment for Clostridium difficile infection

In recurrent infections caused by C. difficile, the intervention is successful 85% of the time.

Tdap vaccine effectiveness may wane over time in preteens

The CDC does not recommend any shift in vaccine protocols at this time.

Investigational meningococcal vaccine may protect patients during outbreak

In the target population, 89.1% coverage with the two-dose vaccination series was obtained through May 14, 2014.

Antibiotic shortages may catch providers off guard

Many of the drug shortages were of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

FDA recalls Queso Fresco cheese for Staphylococcus aureus contamination

To date, no illnesses are known by the Department of Agriculture and Markets to be associated with this product.

Subcutaneous measles vaccine superior to aerosolized vaccine

At day 91, 85.4% of children in the aerosol group and 94.6% in the subcutaneous group were seropositive.

Ebola vaccine trials start in West Africa

Roughly 6,000 health workers will get shots in country hit hard by current outbreak

Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine cost-effective oropharyngeal cancer prevention

The potential costs and effectiveness of HPV4 vaccination versus no vaccination were compared in a theoretical cohort based on a cohort of 192,940 boys aged 12 years.

Nurse-physician collaboration cuts ICU infection rates

Units with more nursing hours per patient-day had a 0.42 decrease in the rate of bloodstream infections.

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor use not tied to pneumonia hospitalizations

Of the 49,653 patients included in the cohort, 562 were hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia during follow-up.

HIV may damage central nervous system during early stages of infection

Of the patients, 10% to 22% showed evidence of HIV replication or inflammation in the brain at different times within the first two years of infection.

Multidrug-resistant shigellosis spreads through United States

In the United States, most Shigella is already resistant to the antibiotics ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

H. Pylori may affect psoriasis severity

The prevalence of H. pylori was not higher in psoriasis versus the control, but patients infected with H. pylori showed more severe psoriasis compared with uninfected patients.

FDA: Avoid amiodarone use in patients prescribed hepatitis C meds

Adding ledipasvir/sofosbuvir or sofosbuvir to amiodarone could cause symptomatic bradycardia, reported the FDA.

Cresemba approved for serious fungal infections

New drug targets cell walls of the fungi and is available in oral and intravenous formulations.

Hearing loss, otologic problems more frequent with HIV

Odds of hearing loss up for HAART-naive patients, and those receiving first- or second-line HAART

Vaccine offers some protection for hepatitis E

Hepatitis E vaccine offers nearly five years of protection. Long-term efficacy still needs to be assessed.

Despite risk, many providers yield to parental vaccine delay requests

While most providers believe that veering from the recommended vaccine schedule is risky, they often agree to parents' wishes.

Viral pneumonia rates rise among kids

Nearly three-quarters of the children studied had viral infections -- either alone or in combination with a bacterial infection.

Characteristics of tuberculosis source cases uncovered

Pulmonary tuberculosis smear-positive for acid-fast bacilli was confirmed in all case patients.

Hepatitis C, HIV coinfection treatment yields high sustained virologic response rates

The high sustained virologic response rates in these studies suggest that future barriers to unnecessary HCV-related deaths may be related to health-care system failures.

Centralized reminder system aids vaccination outreach

Centralized notification system might be more effective than messages from health care provider offices.

Biggest rise in measles cases reported in Illinois

The majority of patients who have gotten the measles in the current outbreak were unvaccinated.

F. necrophorum may be responsible for 1 in 5 sore throats

F. Necrophorum bacteria was found in 20.5% of patients with sore throat symptoms and about 9% in those without sore throats.

Sexually transmitted infection rates similar among HPV-vaccinated, unvaccinated girls

There was a nearly identical increase in STIs among girls who received the HPV vaccine and girls who did not.

Once-daily daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir yields high SVR in HCV

Daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir demonstrated a sustained virological response in 98% of patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C infection.

SVR lowers all-cause mortality in hepatitis C patients

Thirteen patients with SVR died, resulting in a cumulative 10-year overall survival of 91.1% , which did not different significantly from the aged- and sex-matched general population.

U.S. Lyme disease costs could exceed $1 billion annually

Prolonged illness in infected Americans costs up to 1.3 billion a year in treatments

Five measles cases reported at Illinois day care

Health officials don't know if infections are related to outbreak tied to Disney parks in California.

HIV disparities persist for blacks

Blacks account for 45% of CDC-funded HIV testing events, and make up 54.9% of newly positive.

Flu vaccine rates low among nursing home workers

More education is needed to increase influenza vaccination rates among nursing home workers.

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