Infectious Disease News Archive

Flea-Borne Typhus Outbreak in Los Angeles County

An outbreak of flea-borne typhus in Los Angeles County has so far resulted in 57 cases, including 20 in Pasadena and 9 in downtown Los Angeles.

Gardasil 9 Approved for Use in Women and Men 27 Through 45 Years Old

The approval of the expanded age range was based on data from a clinical trial which evaluated the efficacy of Gardasil (quadrivalent human papillomavirus recombinant vaccine) in 3253 women 27-45 years of age with a median duration of follow-up of 3.5 years post-dose 3.

Need for Adequate Screening for Infants With HCV Infected Mothers During Pregnancy

One of the goals of the US Department of Health and Human Services National Viral Hepatitis Action Plan is to eliminate mother-to-infant transmission of HCV infection.

Sofosbuvir-Based Regimens Safe, Effective for Chronic Hepatitis C in the Community

Investigators examined treatment response of sofosbuvir-based DAA in patients with chronic hepatitis C with compensated liver cirrhosis in a community care setting.

Variations in Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Healthcare Employees Reported

Wide variations in influenza vaccine coverage have been noted across healthcare personnel based on occupation and worksite.

Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir Is Safe, Efficacious for HCV/HIV-1 Coinfection

Analysis of 2 phase 3 clinical trials evaluating the safety/efficacy of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir in people with HCV coinfected with HIV-1 found an overall sustained virologic response of 98% at week 12 of treatment in those with or without cirrhosis.

Active Choice Intervention Effective in Increasing Influenza Vaccination Rates at Primary Care Practices

Influenza vaccination rates decline as the clinic day progresses.

Fluoroquinolones May Aid in Reducing Mortality in Community-Acquired Pneumonia

For patients with CAP, antibiotic regimens including a fluoroquinolone may reduce mortality risk by 1-2% compared to beta-lactams and cephalosporins alone.

Probiotic Use May Not Protect Against Clostridium Difficile Infection

In patients taking multiple antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, or histamine receptor antagonists, the concurrent use of probiotics was associated with an increased incidence of Clostridium difficile infection

A Single Combination Tablet Suppresses HIV Load Through 48 Weeks

A combination single tablet once-a-day regimen of doravirine/lamivudine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate demonstrated non-inferiority and no significant adverse events when compared with continuation of established antiretroviral therapy in adults infected with HIV-1.

Improved Documentation May Help Distinguish Beta-Lactam Allergy vs Intolerance

A documented β -lactam allergy was found in more than one-third of patients receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics, however, only 10% of patients were found to be truly allergic.

High Susceptibility Antibiotics Reduce Readmission Rates for Urinary Tract Infections

The use of a moderate to low susceptibility antibiotic to treat a urinary tract infection [UTI] may result in a 1.74-fold increase in the odds of an emergency department readmission within 30 days for another UTI.

First Human Case of Rat Strain of Hepatitis E Found

The first human case of a strain of hepatitis E previously found only in rats was diagnosed in a Hong Kong man who received a liver transplant in May 2017.

Hospital Privacy Curtains Become Increasingly Contaminated

Ten to 14 days after being hung, curtains show increased MRSA positivity.

Barriers Found in PCP Knowledge of Surveillance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Barriers found among PCPs in surveillance of HCC indicate the need for clinical interventions, including provider education.

80,000 Americans Died From Influenza Over Last Year

2017 to 2018 flu strains hit the very young and elderly especially hard; poor vaccine/strain match-up.

CDC: Congenital Syphilis More Than Doubled Since 2013

Congenital syphilis up from 362 cases in 2013 to 918 in 2017, with 46.17% increase since 2016.

HIV Infection Diagnoses on the Rise in Young Homosexual Men

Number of HIV diagnoses in those aged 13 to 29 4x higher than those aged 50 years.

Ground Beef Recalled After E Coli Outbreak

Beef was produced and packaged at Cargill Meat Solutions in Fort Morgan, Colo.

Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease Score Underestimates Mortality

The PELD score underestimates the actual probability of 90-day pretransplant mortality for children undergoing a primary liver transplant.

Patrons of 'Vampire Facial' Spa May Have Been Exposed to HIV

Inspection at the VIP Spa in Albuquerque detected practices that might spread HIV or hepatitis B and C.

Penicillin Allergies: Commonly Reported but Rarely Accurate

As infections from drug-resistant microbes continue to rise, the development of new antibiotics has declined since the golden age of antibiotic discovery in the mid-20th century.

HCV DAA Curative Therapy Associated With Liver Fibrosis Regression

Curing HCV infection with direct-acting antiretrovirals is associated with regression of liver fibrosis for most patients.

Final CDC Update on Salmonella Linked to Backyard Poultry

Live chicks, ducklings obtained from relatives, feed supply stores, websites, and hatcheries.

CDC: Some Sexual Minorities Have Higher Sexual Risk Behaviors

Bisexual females, 'not sure' males have higher prevalence of many sexual risk behaviors.

Factors Associated With Faster Time to Hepatitis C Treatment

The researchers found a significant difference in mean time to direct-acting antiviral agent treatment among participants with public insurance payers compared with private insurance payers.

HCV Neuropsychiatric Symptoms Likely Linked to Virus' Effects on Brain Function

The neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with HCV infection are likely caused by the body's response to the virus' effects on brain function.

HBV Antibody Persistence in Adolescents Vaccinated With DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib as Infants

A robust anamnestic response was mounted in most adolescents when challenged with a dose of monovalent HBV vaccine.

AAP Updates Recommendations for Pediatric Flu Vaccination

All children age 6 months and older, including teens, advised to undergo annual immunization.

Toward Integrated Care for Hepatitis C Infection and Addiction

There is an opportunity to improve HCV treatment rates for people who inject drugs by integrating DAA therapy into current models of community-based addiction.

Real-World Efficacy of DAAs in African Americans With Chronic HCV GT-1 Infection

Direct-acting antivirals are safe and effective in African-American patients with chronic HCV.

Immune Cells' Gene Expression May Predict Flu Susceptibility

Expression of KLRD1 by natural killer cells before infection associated with influenza severity.

CDC: Increase in Rate of STDs for Fourth Consecutive Year in US

Nearly 2.3 million total cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis diagnosed in the United States in 2017.

Drinking Water Turned Off in All Detroit's Public Schools

Decision made 'out of an abundance of caution and concern for the safety of students and employees'.

China Withholding H7N9 Bird Flu Virus Samples From US

Specimens of the rapidly evolving virus are needed to develop vaccines and treatments.

FDA Approves Two New Oral Treatments for HIV-1 Infection

Delstrigo is approved as a complete regimen whereas Pifeltro is to be administered in combination with other antiretrovirals.

CDC: Salmonella Outbreak in 4 States Linked to Kosher Chicken

To date, 8 people have been hospitalized and 1 patient has died.

Risk of Thyroid Dysfunction Not Associated With HIV Status

Compared with uninfected individuals, people with HIV controlled with combination antiretroviral therapy are not at increased risk of developing thyroid dysfunction.

Patient Navigation Associated With Positive Outcomes in HIV

Patient navigation may be considered an effective strategy to enhance engagement and continuation in disease treatment among people with HIV.

CDC: Updated Influenza Vaccination Recommendations for 2018-2019

In general, routine annual vaccination is recommended for all patients ≥6 months of age who have no contraindications.

1997 to 2015 Saw Increase in HIV Viral Suppression Rates

Lower odds of having detectable viral load for older adults and those using ISTI-based regimen.

Majority of Patients With Liver Metastases From Colorectal Cancer Eligible for Laparoscopy

In high-volume centers, patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer may often be eligible for minimally invasive liver surgery via laparoscopy, thereby reducing potential morbidity risks associated with open surgery.

Ibalizumab Active in Multidrug Resistant HIV-1 Infection

Lower degree of susceptibility to ibalizumab for 9 of 10 patients with virology failure, rebound.

International Antiviral Society-USA Updates Recommendations for HIV Treatment and Prevention

The International Antiviral Society-USA Panel has updated its recommendations for the management and prevention of HIV infection, to reflect the most current data on new treatment regimens and strategies.

Intervention Cuts Risk for HIV in Young Transgender Women

Intervention group had greater reduction in condomless sex acts vs standard of care group.

Antibiotics Often Unnecessary for Sacral Pressure Ulcers Complicated by Osteomyelitis

A systematic literature review, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, found no evidence supporting a benefit to antibacterial therapy for osteomyelitis in patients with stage IV sacral pressure ulcers.

Low Rates of Syphilis Testing in High-Risk Men Who Are HIV Positive

Close to one-third of sexually active HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) have not received syphilis screening in the past 12 months.

Vaccinations Begin in Congo Ebola Outbreak

First to be vaccinated will be health workers, contacts of confirmed Ebola patients.

HIV, Syphilis Screening Low With ED-Diagnosed PID in Adolescents

Findings among teens diagnosed with pelvic inflammatory disease in the emergency department.

New Tick Species Spreading in the United States

Asian longhorned tick currently considered a greater threat to livestock than to humans.

Good Outcomes for HCV-Negative Recipients of HCV Kidneys

All 20 recipients experienced HCV cure, good quality of life, excellent renal function.

Severe Asthma Risk Increased From Aspergillus fumigatus Sensitization

Sensitization to Aspergillus fumigatus increased the risk for severe asthma.

Some Bacteria Now More Tolerant of Alcohol-Based Sanitizers

Enterococci bacteria surviving exposure for longer periods of time.

Hepatic Markers Linked to Early Predictors of Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Women

Circulating hepatic markers may predict the risk for diabetes in women.

Guidelines for ART Updated for Those With or at Risk for HIV

ART recommended for almost all HIV-infected; should be initiated as soon as possible post diagnosis.

Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Preferred for Nursing Mothers

Women receiving the inactivated influenza vaccine demonstrated superior antibody response compared with those receiving the live attenuated influenza vaccine.

Successful Screening and Referral for HIV, Hepatitis C in a Trauma Population

Investigators added hepatitis C virus and HIV screening tests to standard trauma activation laboratory orders.

Availability of Generic Antivirals for Hepatitis B Increasing

Drop in median price of WHO-prequalified generic tenofovir from 208 to 32 from 2004 to 2016

HPV Vaccine Failure Rates May Be Higher in Women, Girls With HIV

Vaccinated women and girls living with HIV may be at greater risk for HPV vaccine failure compared with women and girls without HIV.

Coordinated Care Enhances Access to Hepatitis C Antiviral Treatment

Coordinated treatment programs may improve treatment outcomes in patients with hepatitis C infection.

Clinicians Warn That Zika Virus May Still Be an Area of Concern for Travelers

Infectious disease experts from Emory University School of Medicine recommend that patients contemplating travel to Zika-affected areas consult with their care providers regarding travel plans and potential Zika virus testing.

Liver Disease-Related Deaths Up Sharply From 1999 to 2016

Adults aged 25 to 34 show greatest relative increase in mortality, driven by alcoholic cirrhosis.

Fidaxomicin Effective for Long-Term Cure of Clostridium difficile

Fidaxomicin demonstrated the strongest evidence for being the most effective treatment in providing a long-term cure for C difficile infection.

Single High-Dose Liposomal Amphotericin B Effectively Treats HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis

Single high-dose liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) is non-inferior to daily dosed L-AmB at the standard dose in treatment of fungal clearance in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.

FDA: Illnesses Tied to Fresh Crab Meat Imported From Venezuela

Illnesses appear to be caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus bacteria.

Is New Surveillance Monitoring Required for Enterococcal Oxazolidinone Resistance?

A study was conducted to evaluate the oxazolidinone resistance mechanisms of enterococci bacteria.

High Rates of Salmonella Contamination Identified in Kratom

As of end of May 2018, 199 cases of salmonellosis identified that were linked to kratom consumption.

Public Health Vaccine Opposition Growing in the United States

Inverse association identified between NME rate and MMR vaccine coverage of kindergarteners.

Otitis Media-Related Ambulatory Visits Declined After Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

The administration of PCV7 and PCV13 reduced the number of ambulatory visits for otitis media in pediatric patients.

New App Lets Consumers Order STD Tests and Get Treatment via Telemedicine

Results - including the date you were checked and a list of what you were checked for - can be shared by users through text, e-mail or on dating profiles.

Universal Purchase Programs in the United States May Not Effectively Increase Vaccination Rates

Using state- and individual-level data from the 1995-2014 National Immunization Survey, the effect of a state's Universal Purchase adoption on vaccination rates was estimated.

Poor Adherence Contributes to Inadequate Uptake of Multidose Hepatitis Vaccine Schedules

Adherence and completion to multidose vaccine schedules for hepatitis A, B, and A-B are low, thereby rendering vaccination ineffective.

Viruses Identified As Most Common Cause of Meningitis in UK Adults

Estimated annual incidence of viral meningitis is 2.73 per 100,000 UK adults.

Irrigation Water Likely Cause of Romaine Lettuce E. Coli Outbreak

According to the CDC, outbreak that started in the spring and is now over

Diabetes Risk Associated With Cirrhosis, Not Chronic HCV Infection, in HIV Positive Patients

Cirrhosis is associated with an increased risk for diabetes mellitus among patients living with HIV.

Project ECHO: Educational Support to Improve Hepatitis Care

Project ECHO at Los Angeles Christian Health Center contributes to improved care of HCV in underserved populations.

Demographic Insights Into Hepatitis Vaccination Practices

From 2007 to 2015, the majority of initial hepatitis A, B, and A/B vaccinations were administered by primary care providers.

CDC Surveillance Information for the 2017-2018 Influenza Season in the United States

The 2017-2018 influenza season in the United States (October 1, 2017-May 19, 2018) was a high-severity season.

Efavirenz Does Not Increase Depression, Suicidal Ideation in HIV-Infected

No increased risk of depression or suicidal ideation among persons living with HIV in Uganda.

National HIV Testing Day Is on June 27

Annual occasion is a good time for health care providers to encourage testing

CDC Issues Update for Resistant Shigella Infections

The CDC has identified an increasing number of Shigella isolates that test within the susceptible range for the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin.

Novel Antibiotic for C Difficile Infection Gets FDA's QIDP Designation

ACX-362E is a targeted, narrow spectrum oral antibiotic that blocks the DNA replication process through inhibition of polymerase III, which has been shown to be bactericidal.

Florida Teen First Human Case of Another Mosquito-Borne Virus

First documented case of Keystone infection in a human.

Kellogg's Honey Smacks Cereal Recalled Due to Salmonella Risk

Twenty-four people have been hospitalized, but no deaths have been reported.

WHO Independent High-Level Commission on Noncommunicable Diseases Issues Recommendations

Although heads of state and governments have pledged to reduce premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases by one-third by 2030, many countries are not on track to achieve this goal.

Normal on-Treatment ALT Linked to Reduced Hepatic Events in Hepatitis B

Patients with chronic hepatitis B have a lower risk of hepatic events if they achieve normal on-treatment ALT in the first 12 months of NA treatment.

Resistant A. Baumannii Increased in Children From 1999 to 2012

Increase seen carbapenem- and cephalosporin-resistant strains, with peak in 2008

CDC Issues Updated Advisory Regarding Outbreaks of Hepatitis A

Of the 2500 cases of hepatitis A infection reported between January 2017 and April 2018, 68% were among persons who reported drug use (injection and non-injection), homelessness, or both.

60 Sickened So Far in Salmonella-Tainted Melon Outbreak

31 people have been hospitalized; no deaths reported to date.

DAA Therapy May Improve Select Cognitive Domains in HCV-Infected Patients

Successful DAA therapy may lead to cognitive improvement in several domains in HCV-infected patients.

High Costs for Diagnosis, Care of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Costs were significantly higher than total annual costs per matched control with similar comorbidities.

Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Long-Term Survival and Health Outcomes

Lyme neuroborreliosis diagnosis had no substantial effect on long-term survival, health, or educational/social functioning yet may be associated with an increased risk of hematologic and nonmelanoma skin cancers.

CDC Says E Coli Outbreak Tied to Romaine Lettuce Is Over

197 cases of illness linked to the E coli outbreak, 5 of which were fatal

Hepatitis C-Exposed Infants Not Adequately Screened

Low screening rate seen at same time as increase in hepatitis C virus prevalence among pregnant women

Healthcare Program Obtains 93% of Prior Authorization Approvals for HCV Medications

The Respectful & Equitable Access to Comprehensive Healthcare program obtained 93% of prior authorization approvals for hepatitis C medications.

Novel Medicaid Strategy Proposed to Increase Access to HCV Treatment

A proposed novel Medicaid purchasing strategy is anticipated to increase access to medications that can eradicate hepatitis C virus infection without increasing costs at the state and federal levels.

CDC IDs Outbreak Trends Tied to Treated Recreational Water

Outbreaks with confirmed infectious etiology usually caused by Cryptosporidium, Legionella, Pseudomonas

Sofosbuvir Improves Renal Safety in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C

Patients with mild, moderate renal impairment showed improvement in renal biomarkers over one year

CDC: Get Vaccinated for Measles Before Traveling

The CDC recommends 2 doses of the MMR vaccine, which provides 97% protection against measles, prior to international travel.

Robust Immune Responses for Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine

Humoral response seen for 97.8% of HZ/su vaccine recipients vs 2% of placebo

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