Infectious Disease News Archive

End-of-Treatment HBsAg Levels May Predict HBV Relapse in Chronic Hepatitis B

End-of-treatment HBsAg levels may be a clinically useful biomarker to predict HBV relapse in patients with chronic hepatitis B regardless of HBeAg status.

Obesity Can Negatively Affect Liver in Children As Young As 8

Increased adiposity in childhood may negatively impact liver function in children as young as 8 years old.

Direct-Acting Antivirals Improve Liver Transplant Survival

Direct-acting antivirals improved the survival of patients undergoing liver transplantation for HCV-related liver disease.

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria found in 221 US healthcare facilities in 2017

Antibiotic resistance is a nationwide issue that affects every state, so how do we combat it?

CVS unintentionally reveals HIV status of 6,000 customers, per lawsuit

CVS Health faces lawsuit for revealing the HIV status of 6,000 patients in Ohio.

FDA approves antiretroviral therapy for multidrug-resistant HIV

The FDA has approved Trogarzo for heavily treated adult patients living with HIV and whose HIV infections cannot be successfully treated with other currently available therapies.

Pink Eye: Prevention and Treatment Tips from the CDC

Pink eye, also known as conjunctivitis, is an inflammation of the conjunctiva.

Daily dose of PrEP raises coverage, protective drug concentrations

Recommendations for daily doses of emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) resulted in protective drug concentrations for men and transgender women.

Fatigue, muscle aches more common in women with HIV than men

The two most prevalent HIV symptoms, fatigue and muscle aches, are more common in women than men and can worsen with menopause.

BMI associated with hepatocellular carcinoma risk for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus

BMI is positively correlated with increased hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic HBV, though the risk is greater in women.

HCV treatment with direct antiviral agents improves carotid atherosclerosis

Hepatitis C virus eradication by direct antiviral agents improves carotid atherosclerosis in patients with advanced fibrosis and compensated cirrhosis.

Prophylaxis may protect kidney recipients from HCV

Prophylaxis safely, effectively prevents HCV transmittance in noninfected patients receiving kidney transplants from HCV-positive donors.

Maternal TDF not effective in reducing hepatitis B transmission

TDF did not reduce mother-to-child HBV transmission in mothers taking hepatitis B Ig and HBV vaccine.

Drug combination effective for hepatitis C

Elbasvir and grazoprevir, taken in combination for 12 weeks, successfully treated virologic response in patient with hepatitis C genotype 1b.

Acetaminophen use increased between 2011-2016 cold/flu seasons

During cold/flu season there is an increase in acetaminophen use and overdosing.

FDA approves screening tests for Babesia microti

The first set of blood screening tests for the tickborne parasite Babesia microti have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

FDA OKs new medication for individuals with resistant HIV

A new antiretroviral HIV treatment, Trogarzo (ibalizumab-uiyk), has been approved by the FDA for patients with HIV who have not have success with past HIV medications.

Newer HIV testing options underused in Black MSM and transgender women

Increasing awareness of and access to newer HIV testing options such as free or reduced price on home and self-tests and couples HIV testing and counseling can facilitate increased levels of consistent testing among young, Black MSM, and transgender women.

Bacterial vaginosis may alter links between contraception, HIV acquisition

Bacterial vaginosis may cause an increased risk for HIV acquisition in women taking oral or injectable hormonal contraception.

Alternatives to whole liver transplants possible for children

Technical variant grafts may be better than whole grafts for living donor liver transplants in children.

Alcohol usage not linked to lower short-term CD4 cell count in HIV

Excessive alcohol consumption does not impact the decline of CD4 cell count in patients with HIV who have not undergone antiretroviral treatments.

HIV care worsened with chronicity of depression

Chronicity of depression is associated with increased likelihood of failure along the continuum of HIV care.

Cardiac surgery during flu season linked to ARDS

Undergoing cardiac surgery during the influenza season is associated with increased likelihood of development of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Opioid use increases risk of invasive pneumococcal disease

The risk of invasive pneumococcal disease is correlated with the prescription opioid use.

Hepatitis B infection prevention: ACIP updated recommendations

The Work Group who authored the new recommendations was made up of professionals from academic medicine, federal and state public health agencies, and medical societies.

Once daily glecaprevir-pibrentasvir treats HCV genotype 1,3

Once daily glecaprevir-pibrentasvir for 8 or 12 weeks successfully treated HCV genotype 1 and 3.

USPSTF: Syphilis screenings recommended for pregnant women

The USPSTF reports that pregnant women can benefit from screening for syphilis infection.

CDC: Influenza vaccine 25% effective against H3N2 in 2017-2018

The 2017 to 2018 influenza vaccine reduces the chance of getting the disease by about 33%, but is only 25% effective against H3N2, otherwise known as influenza A.

Primary gastrinomas of the hepatobiliary tract may occur in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Lymph nodes proximal to hepatic or biliary gastrinomas will likely require extraction as many in the surround region will have metastasized.

HCV treatment hinders liver fibrosis progression

Patients with chronic HCV with a sustained virologic response were more likely to have a reduced progression of liver fibrosis.

Airborne influenza transmission possible through exhalation

Influenza infections are independently compartmentalized in the upper and lower airways.

Glucocorticoid treatment ineffective for reducing sepsis-related mortality

Hydrocortisone treatment does not effectively reduce mortality in sepsis.

Herpes zoster subunit vaccine more effective, less expensive than live attenuated herpes zoster vaccine

The adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine is more effective and less expensive than the live attenuated herpes zoster vaccine at all ages.

Provider-demanded flu testing less likely in elderly patients

Younger adults are more likely to have provider-ordered flu testing than older adults.

HIV screening at 25 years optimal for outcomes, cost

For young adults without known risk factors, a one-time routine HIV screen at 25 years would optimize clinical outcomes and be cost-effective.

Multiple flu vaccinations may prevent death, serious infection

Intensive care and death were greatly prevented in patients who were annually vaccinated.

CDC investigating E. coli outbreak in 13 states

An outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 have been reported in 13 states in the US as well as Canada.

Man flu: man-made or real illness?

Men may experience a lower immune response than women, adding insight to the man flu debate.

Flu vaccine safe for individuals with egg allergy

Inactivated and live attenuated flu vaccines can be safely administered to people with egg allergies.

Combination ART may prevent progressive brain injury in HIV patients

Post-seroconversion brain morphology can occur in HIV patients, but aviremia maintenance via cART can slow of prevent brain injuries.

HIV infection to diagnosis time decreasing

A new report from the CDC finds that HIV is being diagnosed sooner after initial infection than in previous years.

Nivolumab treatment for lung cancer may successfully deplete HIV reservoirs

Nivolumab treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer may induce successful depletion of HIV reservoir.

HIV occurrences decline in Uganda from 1999 to 2016

The decrease in HIV incidence in Uganda was facilitated by antiretroviral therapy, male circumcision, and adolescent abstinence.

Clinician accuracy low for lyme disease diagnosis

Clinician suspicion has minimal accuracy for the diagnosis of Lyme disease.

Healthcare system fires 50 employees for refusing influenza vaccination

A Minnesota-based hospital chain fires about 50 employees for refusal to receive the influenza vaccine.

FDA approves Heplisav-B vaccine for hepatitis B treatment

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Heplisav-B for the prevention of infection caused by all known subtypes of hepatitis B virus.

Reduced effectiveness of last season's flu vaccine traced to mutation in chicken eggs

New virus mutations make antibody binding difficult as mismatches in vaccines and viruses emerge.

Characteristics in transgender individuals may lead to more HIV tests

More tests might be administered to transgender individuals who are female, black, or sex workers.

Proposed pneumonia vaccine provides universal pneumococcal disease prevention

A pneumonia vaccine under development provides the most comprehensive coverage to date and alleviates antimicrobial concerns.

Dual HIV treatment provides simple, safe salvage regimen

The dual combination of dolutegravir plus darunavir/ritonavir provided a simple and safe salvage therapy to suppress viral replication without metabolic impact in patients infected with HIV-1.

Hepatitis increases mortality rates in HIV patients

Hepatitis B and hepatitis C may increase mortality risks in HIV patients.

Law upheld requiring HIV-infected adults to tell sexual partners of their status

The Ohio Supreme Court has unanimously upheld the constitutionality of a law requiring HIV-infected individuals to tell their sexual partners of their illness.

CDC updates contraception recommendations for women at risk for HIV

The CDC revised its US Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use categorization for DMPA injection in women at high risk for HIV infection from US MEC category 1 to US MEC category 2.

Antiretroviral therapy resistance increasing in HIV treatment

Resistance to ART is threatening the recent gains of treatment in the rate of new HIV infections.

Combination antibiotic treatment beneficial for community-acquired pneumonia

A combination antibiotic regimen with a macrolide was shown to improve short- and long-term outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

Epsom salt may cause liver injury in predisposed patients

A 38-year old nonalcoholic patient consumed Epsom salt in large quantities for a short period of time and developed jaundice and steatohepatitis.

Clinical tool developed to determine pediatric community-acquired pneumonia severity

Researchers developed a clinical tool to predict prolonged hospital stays in patients with pediatric community-acquired pneumonia.

Infection prevention in ambulatory settings: A policy statement from the AAP

The AAP has updated guidelines on infection prevention and control that include the endorsement of immunization for healthcare personnel and guidance during outbreaks of infectious diseases.

High percentage of HIV-diagnosed women not receiving care

More than half of women receiving a new HIV diagnosis have already received this diagnosis in the past but are not undergoing HIV medical care.

Herbal, dietary supplements commonly mislabeled

Mislabeling of herbal and dietary supplements is common, occurring in more than half of products tested.

Aspirin use associated with a reduced risk of HCC in hepatitis B patients

Aspirin therapy is associated with a reduced risk of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

Updated hepatitis C recommendations include kidney transplant, pregnant patients

The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the Infectious Diseases Society of America have added updates to the hepatitis C guidelines to include kidney transplant, pregnant, and pediatric patients.

HIV care outcomes low for Hispanics and Latinos

Infection was diagnosed at an early stage for fewer males with infection attributed to heterosexual contact vs male-to-male sexual contact.

No evidence that the influenza vaccine causes VTE

In the 1 to 10 days after flu vaccine administration, there was no increased risk for VTE.

Positive mood associated with enhanced responses to influenza vaccination

Greater positive mood significantly predicted greater antibody responses to the influenza vaccination.

Tdap vaccination during pregnancy protects infants from pertussis

With a continuing resurgence in pertussis, efforts should focus on maximizing Tdap uptake among pregnant women.

Half of adults with work-related asthma receive pneumococcal vaccination

The researchers found that 42% of the estimated 12 million ever-employed adults with current asthma had received a pneumococcal vaccine.

Chronic pain management in HIV: Updated recommendations

The HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Disease Society of America recommends that people living with HIV be screened for pain and offered both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment options.

Single-tablet HIV treatment superior to standard therapy

Virological response, efficacy, noninferiority, and tolerability were tested for bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide in patients with HIV.

FDA approves Opdivo for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

The FDA has approved Opdivo (nivolumab) injection for the treatment of patients with HCC who have been previously treated with sorafenib.

CDC: US cases of STDs exceed 2 million

According to the report, 1.6 million cases were chlamydia, and there were 470,000 cases of gonorrhea and almost 28,000 primary and secondary syphilis cases.

Notification rates of HIV diagnoses increased in 16 European countries

In 16 countries, notification rates for new HIV diagnoses in older adults increased significantly, clustering in central and eastern European countries.

Combating the hepatitis A outbreak in San Diego

The 3-part plan to halt the outbreak of hepatitis A focuses on immunization, sanitation and education with most of the efforts focused on the homeless population who are the most at-risk population.

Hepatocellular carcinoma risk unclear after hepatitis C treatment

The results show no evidence to support a hypothesis of differential impact of interferon and direct-acting antiviral-based cure on risk for HCC occurrence and recurrence.

Once-daily HIV tablet safe for children

Elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide was well tolerated in children and maintained high virological suppression.

Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease increases cancer risk in adulthood

Patients with childhood-onset IBD have an increased risk of cancer, especially gastrointestinal cancers, lymphoid neoplasms, and skin cancer,

Vitamin D supplements may improve bone health in HIV-infected youth

High-dose vitamin D supplements improve bone mineral density in youth with HIV.

Clinical practice guideline for antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women with HIV

Alternative treatments should be offered to pregnant women with HIV instead of tenofovir or emtricitabine.

Smartphone-based electronic reader reliable for point-of-care tests in HIV and T pallidum infections

The findings shed new light on the applicability of smartphone-based electronic readers in point-of-care testing.

2017-2018 recommendations for pediatric influenza vaccination

The guidelines include a strong recommendation for annual seasonal influenza immunization for everyone 6 months and older.

Influenza vaccination rates drop in children when nasal spray is unavailable

Total influenza vaccination rates among children in the 2016 to 2017 influenza season dropped 1.6% from the year before.

Newer influenza diagnostic tests more accurate than traditional tests

Digital immunoassays and rapid nucleic acid amplification tests have higher sensitivities for detecting influenza than rapid influenza diagnostic tests.

PrEP adherence in adolescent MSM decreases over time

Adherence decreased over time in adolescent MSM who participated in a 48-week HIV PrEP intervention.

Coffee consumption associated with reduced liver cancer risk, no link to biliary tract cancer

No significant association was observed between coffee consumption and risk of biliary tract cancer, but there was evidence of an inverse correlation between coffee consumption and liver cancer risk.

Mediterranean diet, antioxidant supplements beneficial for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

A Mediterranean diet with antioxidant supplementation contributes to improving lipid profile and insulin sensitivity parameters in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Demand for liver transplant for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis expected to continue

The increase in the demand for liver transplantation for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is expected to continue with the current population obesity trends.

CDC releases updated influenza vaccine recommendations for 2017-2018

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has released the guidelines for the 2017-2018 season.

FDA approves Chagas disease treatment for children

The FDA has approved benznidazole to treat the tropical parasitic infection Chagas disease in children.

FDA approves Vabomere for UTI treatment

This approval provides an additional treatment option for patients with complicated urinary tract infection.

AAP: Hepatitis B vaccine should be given within first 24 hours of life

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine should be given within the first 24 hours of life.

Sepsis, pneumonia lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease in men

Men who are admitted to the hospital with a serious infection may have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the years immediately following the infection.

Hypoxia, increased work of breathing outweigh tachypnea, auscultatory findings in diagnosing pneumonia

No single clinical observation reliably differentiates pneumonia from other causes of respiratory illness in children.

Infection risk increases with reduced kidney function

Researchers observed excess community-acquired infections incidence in individuals with mild to severe chronic kidney disease.

Influenza A virus transmitted from swine to humans at agricultural fair

Researchers found the H3N2 virus in swine at state fairs in Ohio and Michigan, which was transmitted to humans.

Primary care providers and nurse practitioners can expand HCV treatment access

Primary care providers and nurse practitioners achieve the same sustained virologic response rates as specialists.

Live attenuated influenza vaccine ineffective in children during 2015-2016 season

The live attenuated vaccine was ineffective among children between 2 and 17 years of age during the 2015-2016 season.

Previous maternal influenza vaccine does not weaken newborn benefit

Researchers found that in a cohort of pregnant women, receipt of influenza vaccine the previous year predicts higher baseline antibody titers and decreased peak antibody responses against all influenza strains.

Sexually risky behavior more common in women with mental disorders than in men

Women with mental illness engage in significantly more sexually risky behaviors than men, and personality risk scores are a significant predictor of total sex acts for women but not men.

Offering rapid HIV testing to patients increases overall testing rate in the emergency department

Rapid HIV testing offered in parallel to patient-clinician consultations increases the testing rate in the emergency department.

WHO releases new guidelines in response to pretreatment HIV drug resistance

The new guidelines address the issue of how to manage pretreatment HIV drug resistance in countries where the prevalence of is 10% or higher.

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