Infectious Disease News Archive

Universal Purchase Programs in the United States May Not Effectively Increase Vaccination Rates

Using state- and individual-level data from the 1995-2014 National Immunization Survey, the effect of a state's Universal Purchase adoption on vaccination rates was estimated.

Poor Adherence Contributes to Inadequate Update of Multidose Hepatitis Vaccine Schedules

Adherence and completion to multidose vaccine schedules for hepatitis A, B, and A-B are low, thereby rendering vaccination ineffective.

Viruses Identified As Most Common Cause of Meningitis in UK Adults

Estimated annual incidence of viral meningitis is 2.73 per 100,000 UK adults.

Irrigation Water Likely Cause of Romaine Lettuce E. Coli Outbreak

According to the CDC, outbreak that started in the spring and is now over

Diabetes Risk Associated With Cirrhosis, Not Chronic HCV Infection, in HIV Positive Patients

Cirrhosis is associated with an increased risk for diabetes mellitus among patients living with HIV.

Project ECHO: Educational Support to Improve Hepatitis Care

Project ECHO at Los Angeles Christian Health Center contributes to improved care of HCV in underserved populations.

Demographic Insights Into Hepatitis Vaccination Practices

From 2007 to 2015, the majority of initial hepatitis A, B, and A/B vaccinations were administered by primary care providers.

CDC Surveillance Information for the 2017-2018 Influenza Season in the United States

The 2017-2018 influenza season in the United States (October 1, 2017-May 19, 2018) was a high-severity season.

Efavirenz Does Not Increase Depression, Suicidal Ideation in HIV-Infected

No increased risk of depression or suicidal ideation among persons living with HIV in Uganda.

National HIV Testing Day Is on June 27

Annual occasion is a good time for health care providers to encourage testing

CDC Issues Update for Resistant Shigella Infections

The CDC has identified an increasing number of Shigella isolates that test within the susceptible range for the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin.

Novel Antibiotic for C Difficile Infection Gets FDA's QIDP Designation

ACX-362E is a targeted, narrow spectrum oral antibiotic that blocks the DNA replication process through inhibition of polymerase III, which has been shown to be bactericidal.

Florida Teen First Human Case of Another Mosquito-Borne Virus

First documented case of Keystone infection in a human.

Kellogg's Honey Smacks Cereal Recalled Due to Salmonella Risk

Twenty-four people have been hospitalized, but no deaths have been reported.

WHO Independent High-Level Commission on Noncommunicable Diseases Issues Recommendations

Although heads of state and governments have pledged to reduce premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases by one-third by 2030, many countries are not on track to achieve this goal.

Normal on-Treatment ALT Linked to Reduced Hepatic Events in Hepatitis B

Patients with chronic hepatitis B have a lower risk of hepatic events if they achieve normal on-treatment ALT in the first 12 months of NA treatment.

Resistant A. Baumannii Increased in Children From 1999 to 2012

Increase seen carbapenem- and cephalosporin-resistant strains, with peak in 2008

CDC Issues Updated Advisory Regarding Outbreaks of Hepatitis A

Of the 2500 cases of hepatitis A infection reported between January 2017 and April 2018, 68% were among persons who reported drug use (injection and non-injection), homelessness, or both.

60 Sickened So Far in Salmonella-Tainted Melon Outbreak

31 people have been hospitalized; no deaths reported to date.

DAA Therapy May Improve Select Cognitive Domains in HCV-Infected Patients

Successful DAA therapy may lead to cognitive improvement in several domains in HCV-infected patients.

High Costs for Diagnosis, Care of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Costs were significantly higher than total annual costs per matched control with similar comorbidities.

Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Long-Term Survival and Health Outcomes

Lyme neuroborreliosis diagnosis had no substantial effect on long-term survival, health, or educational/social functioning yet may be associated with an increased risk of hematologic and nonmelanoma skin cancers.

CDC Says E Coli Outbreak Tied to Romaine Lettuce Is Over

197 cases of illness linked to the E coli outbreak, 5 of which were fatal

Hepatitis C-Exposed Infants Not Adequately Screened

Low screening rate seen at same time as increase in hepatitis C virus prevalence among pregnant women

Healthcare Program Obtains 93% of Prior Authorization Approvals for HCV Medications

The Respectful & Equitable Access to Comprehensive Healthcare program obtained 93% of prior authorization approvals for hepatitis C medications.

Novel Medicaid Strategy Proposed to Increase Access to HCV Treatment

A proposed novel Medicaid purchasing strategy is anticipated to increase access to medications that can eradicate hepatitis C virus infection without increasing costs at the state and federal levels.

CDC IDs Outbreak Trends Tied to Treated Recreational Water

Outbreaks with confirmed infectious etiology usually caused by Cryptosporidium, Legionella, Pseudomonas

Sofosbuvir Improves Renal Safety in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C

Patients with mild, moderate renal impairment showed improvement in renal biomarkers over one year

CDC: Get Vaccinated for Measles Before Traveling

The CDC recommends 2 doses of the MMR vaccine, which provides 97% protection against measles, prior to international travel.

Robust Immune Responses for Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine

Humoral response seen for 97.8% of HZ/su vaccine recipients vs 2% of placebo

Case Report: Nephrotic Syndrome and Chronic HCV in a 72-Year-Old Woman

A 72-year-old Japanese woman with a 40-year history of lupus nephritis presented with leg edema that had lasted for several weeks.

ACOG: Updated Recommendations for Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy

This updated Committee Opinion includes more recent data on the safety and efficacy of influenza vaccination during pregnancy, as well as recommendations for treatment and postexposure chemoprophylaxis.

More Comprehensive HDV Surveillance Needed in High-Risk Individuals

Future studies might focus on the use of electronic medical record warning systems or other prompts to improve diagnostic test use in at-risk individuals.

Metabolic Syndrome Common With Chronic Hepatitis B Infection

Metabolic syndrome also associated with higher alanine aminotransferase levels longitudinally

Hepatitis C Screening Increasing Among Baby Boomers

Screening prevalence 11.5 to 12.8%; similar rate for cohort born from 1966 to 1985

Effectiveness of Shortened Treatment Regimen for Hepatitis C Assessed

In this large, real-world cohort of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection, equivalent sustained virologic response rates were found with both 8-week and 12-week treatment.

End-of-Treatment HBsAg Levels May Predict HBV Relapse in Chronic Hepatitis B

End-of-treatment HBsAg levels may be a clinically useful biomarker to predict HBV relapse in patients with chronic hepatitis B regardless of HBeAg status.

Obesity Can Negatively Affect Liver in Children As Young As 8

Increased adiposity in childhood may negatively impact liver function in children as young as 8 years old.

Direct-Acting Antivirals Improve Liver Transplant Survival

Direct-acting antivirals improved the survival of patients undergoing liver transplantation for HCV-related liver disease.

Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Found in 221 US Healthcare Facilities in 2017

Antibiotic resistance is a nationwide issue that affects every state, so how do we combat it?

CVS unintentionally reveals HIV status of 6,000 customers, per lawsuit

CVS Health faces lawsuit for revealing the HIV status of 6,000 patients in Ohio.

FDA approves antiretroviral therapy for multidrug-resistant HIV

The FDA has approved Trogarzo for heavily treated adult patients living with HIV and whose HIV infections cannot be successfully treated with other currently available therapies.

Pink Eye: Prevention and Treatment Tips from the CDC

Pink eye, also known as conjunctivitis, is an inflammation of the conjunctiva.

Daily dose of PrEP raises coverage, protective drug concentrations

Recommendations for daily doses of emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) resulted in protective drug concentrations for men and transgender women.

Fatigue, muscle aches more common in women with HIV than men

The two most prevalent HIV symptoms, fatigue and muscle aches, are more common in women than men and can worsen with menopause.

BMI associated with hepatocellular carcinoma risk for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus

BMI is positively correlated with increased hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic HBV, though the risk is greater in women.

HCV treatment with direct antiviral agents improves carotid atherosclerosis

Hepatitis C virus eradication by direct antiviral agents improves carotid atherosclerosis in patients with advanced fibrosis and compensated cirrhosis.

Prophylaxis may protect kidney recipients from HCV

Prophylaxis safely, effectively prevents HCV transmittance in noninfected patients receiving kidney transplants from HCV-positive donors.

Maternal TDF not effective in reducing hepatitis B transmission

TDF did not reduce mother-to-child HBV transmission in mothers taking hepatitis B Ig and HBV vaccine.

Drug combination effective for hepatitis C

Elbasvir and grazoprevir, taken in combination for 12 weeks, successfully treated virologic response in patient with hepatitis C genotype 1b.

Acetaminophen use increased between 2011-2016 cold/flu seasons

During cold/flu season there is an increase in acetaminophen use and overdosing.

FDA approves screening tests for Babesia microti

The first set of blood screening tests for the tickborne parasite Babesia microti have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

FDA OKs new medication for individuals with resistant HIV

A new antiretroviral HIV treatment, Trogarzo (ibalizumab-uiyk), has been approved by the FDA for patients with HIV who have not have success with past HIV medications.

Newer HIV testing options underused in Black MSM and transgender women

Increasing awareness of and access to newer HIV testing options such as free or reduced price on home and self-tests and couples HIV testing and counseling can facilitate increased levels of consistent testing among young, Black MSM, and transgender women.

Bacterial vaginosis may alter links between contraception, HIV acquisition

Bacterial vaginosis may cause an increased risk for HIV acquisition in women taking oral or injectable hormonal contraception.

Alternatives to whole liver transplants possible for children

Technical variant grafts may be better than whole grafts for living donor liver transplants in children.

Alcohol usage not linked to lower short-term CD4 cell count in HIV

Excessive alcohol consumption does not impact the decline of CD4 cell count in patients with HIV who have not undergone antiretroviral treatments.

HIV care worsened with chronicity of depression

Chronicity of depression is associated with increased likelihood of failure along the continuum of HIV care.

Cardiac surgery during flu season linked to ARDS

Undergoing cardiac surgery during the influenza season is associated with increased likelihood of development of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Opioid use increases risk of invasive pneumococcal disease

The risk of invasive pneumococcal disease is correlated with the prescription opioid use.

Hepatitis B infection prevention: ACIP updated recommendations

The Work Group who authored the new recommendations was made up of professionals from academic medicine, federal and state public health agencies, and medical societies.

Once daily glecaprevir-pibrentasvir treats HCV genotype 1,3

Once daily glecaprevir-pibrentasvir for 8 or 12 weeks successfully treated HCV genotype 1 and 3.

USPSTF: Syphilis screenings recommended for pregnant women

The USPSTF reports that pregnant women can benefit from screening for syphilis infection.

CDC: Influenza vaccine 25% effective against H3N2 in 2017-2018

The 2017 to 2018 influenza vaccine reduces the chance of getting the disease by about 33%, but is only 25% effective against H3N2, otherwise known as influenza A.

Primary gastrinomas of the hepatobiliary tract may occur in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Lymph nodes proximal to hepatic or biliary gastrinomas will likely require extraction as many in the surround region will have metastasized.

HCV treatment hinders liver fibrosis progression

Patients with chronic HCV with a sustained virologic response were more likely to have a reduced progression of liver fibrosis.

Airborne influenza transmission possible through exhalation

Influenza infections are independently compartmentalized in the upper and lower airways.

Glucocorticoid treatment ineffective for reducing sepsis-related mortality

Hydrocortisone treatment does not effectively reduce mortality in sepsis.

Herpes zoster subunit vaccine more effective, less expensive than live attenuated herpes zoster vaccine

The adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine is more effective and less expensive than the live attenuated herpes zoster vaccine at all ages.

Provider-demanded flu testing less likely in elderly patients

Younger adults are more likely to have provider-ordered flu testing than older adults.

HIV screening at 25 years optimal for outcomes, cost

For young adults without known risk factors, a one-time routine HIV screen at 25 years would optimize clinical outcomes and be cost-effective.

Multiple flu vaccinations may prevent death, serious infection

Intensive care and death were greatly prevented in patients who were annually vaccinated.

CDC investigating E. coli outbreak in 13 states

An outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 have been reported in 13 states in the US as well as Canada.

Man flu: man-made or real illness?

Men may experience a lower immune response than women, adding insight to the man flu debate.

Flu vaccine safe for individuals with egg allergy

Inactivated and live attenuated flu vaccines can be safely administered to people with egg allergies.

Combination ART may prevent progressive brain injury in HIV patients

Post-seroconversion brain morphology can occur in HIV patients, but aviremia maintenance via cART can slow of prevent brain injuries.

HIV infection to diagnosis time decreasing

A new report from the CDC finds that HIV is being diagnosed sooner after initial infection than in previous years.

Nivolumab treatment for lung cancer may successfully deplete HIV reservoirs

Nivolumab treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer may induce successful depletion of HIV reservoir.

HIV occurrences decline in Uganda from 1999 to 2016

The decrease in HIV incidence in Uganda was facilitated by antiretroviral therapy, male circumcision, and adolescent abstinence.

Clinician accuracy low for lyme disease diagnosis

Clinician suspicion has minimal accuracy for the diagnosis of Lyme disease.

Healthcare system fires 50 employees for refusing influenza vaccination

A Minnesota-based hospital chain fires about 50 employees for refusal to receive the influenza vaccine.

FDA approves Heplisav-B vaccine for hepatitis B treatment

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Heplisav-B for the prevention of infection caused by all known subtypes of hepatitis B virus.

Reduced effectiveness of last season's flu vaccine traced to mutation in chicken eggs

New virus mutations make antibody binding difficult as mismatches in vaccines and viruses emerge.

Characteristics in transgender individuals may lead to more HIV tests

More tests might be administered to transgender individuals who are female, black, or sex workers.

Proposed pneumonia vaccine provides universal pneumococcal disease prevention

A pneumonia vaccine under development provides the most comprehensive coverage to date and alleviates antimicrobial concerns.

Dual HIV treatment provides simple, safe salvage regimen

The dual combination of dolutegravir plus darunavir/ritonavir provided a simple and safe salvage therapy to suppress viral replication without metabolic impact in patients infected with HIV-1.

Hepatitis increases mortality rates in HIV patients

Hepatitis B and hepatitis C may increase mortality risks in HIV patients.

Law upheld requiring HIV-infected adults to tell sexual partners of their status

The Ohio Supreme Court has unanimously upheld the constitutionality of a law requiring HIV-infected individuals to tell their sexual partners of their illness.

CDC updates contraception recommendations for women at risk for HIV

The CDC revised its US Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use categorization for DMPA injection in women at high risk for HIV infection from US MEC category 1 to US MEC category 2.

Antiretroviral therapy resistance increasing in HIV treatment

Resistance to ART is threatening the recent gains of treatment in the rate of new HIV infections.

Combination antibiotic treatment beneficial for community-acquired pneumonia

A combination antibiotic regimen with a macrolide was shown to improve short- and long-term outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

Epsom salt may cause liver injury in predisposed patients

A 38-year old nonalcoholic patient consumed Epsom salt in large quantities for a short period of time and developed jaundice and steatohepatitis.

Clinical tool developed to determine pediatric community-acquired pneumonia severity

Researchers developed a clinical tool to predict prolonged hospital stays in patients with pediatric community-acquired pneumonia.

Infection prevention in ambulatory settings: A policy statement from the AAP

The AAP has updated guidelines on infection prevention and control that include the endorsement of immunization for healthcare personnel and guidance during outbreaks of infectious diseases.

High percentage of HIV-diagnosed women not receiving care

More than half of women receiving a new HIV diagnosis have already received this diagnosis in the past but are not undergoing HIV medical care.

Herbal, dietary supplements commonly mislabeled

Mislabeling of herbal and dietary supplements is common, occurring in more than half of products tested.

Aspirin use associated with a reduced risk of HCC in hepatitis B patients

Aspirin therapy is associated with a reduced risk of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

Updated hepatitis C recommendations include kidney transplant, pregnant patients

The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the Infectious Diseases Society of America have added updates to the hepatitis C guidelines to include kidney transplant, pregnant, and pediatric patients.

HIV care outcomes low for Hispanics and Latinos

Infection was diagnosed at an early stage for fewer males with infection attributed to heterosexual contact vs male-to-male sexual contact.

No evidence that the influenza vaccine causes VTE

In the 1 to 10 days after flu vaccine administration, there was no increased risk for VTE.

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