Infectious Diseases

Adverse events common in hospitalized patients taking antibiotics

Adverse events common in hospitalized patients taking antibiotics

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Many adverse events could be avoidable with more judicious use of antibiotics.

Emergency department visits for herpes zoster increased from 2006-2013

Emergency department visits for herpes zoster increased from 2006-2013

The number of emergency department visits for herpes zoster have increased from 2006 to 2013.

HIV testing rates low in young men who have sex with men

HIV testing rates low in young men who have sex with men

The CDC found that 28% of young men who have sex with men have undergone HIV testing, though they account for 83% of new diagnoses.

Chlorhexidine oral rinse solution ineffective for aspiration pneumonia

Chlorhexidine oral rinse solution ineffective for aspiration pneumonia

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Study findings suggest that nursing home residents should receive more guidance in using strategies to prevent aspiration during eating and drinking.

Hepatitis B vaccine reduces risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents

Hepatitis B vaccine reduces risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents

The universal vaccination against hepatitis B virus infection prevented non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents.

Maternal antibodies inhibit antigenic responses to vaccines in infants

Maternal antibodies inhibit antigenic responses to vaccines in infants

Vaccines given shortly after birth demonstrated a strong inhibitory response to maternal antibodies.

Updated meningococcal vaccine guidelines reflect more dosing options

Updated meningococcal vaccine guidelines reflect more dosing options

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices released updated guidelines to include recommendations for the 3-dose formulation of serogroup B meningococcal vaccine.

Amphotericin B superior to itraconazole for HIV-associated talaromycosis

Amphotericin B superior to itraconazole for HIV-associated talaromycosis

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Treatment with amphotericin B was superior to itraconazole as an induction therapy for HIV-associated talaromycosis.

Postpartum antiretroviral therapy is beneficial in HIV-positive women

Postpartum antiretroviral therapy is beneficial in HIV-positive women

Continued antiretroviral therapy was found to be safe and beneficial in HIV-positive postpartum women with high CD4+ T cell counts.

Treatment for chronic Lyme disease linked to serious adverse effects

Treatment for chronic Lyme disease linked to serious adverse effects

Clinicians and patients should be aware that treatments for chronic Lyme disease can carry serious risks.

Case Study: Fever and low platelets

Case Study: Fever and low platelets

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A 66-year-old woman with a history of sarcoidosis and hypertension presents to the emergency department for 4 days with right-sided abdominal pain, vomiting, fever, and mild diarrhea without blood.

Treatment for cutaneous abscesses

Treatment for cutaneous abscesses

Antibiotics do not always need to be used for cutaneous abscesses, but the condition must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to make a final decision regarding the appropriate course of treatment for any individual.

CDC: Legionnaires' disease widespread in healthcare facilities

CDC: Legionnaires' disease widespread in healthcare facilities

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About 76% of US jurisdictions reported healthcare-associated cases of Legionnaires' disease.

Study finds flu shots less effective for obese adults

Study finds flu shots less effective for obese adults

Study finds flu shots are less effective for obese adults compared to healthy weight individuals.

Conception methods available for reducing risk of transmission in HIV-discordant couples

Conception methods available for reducing risk of transmission in HIV-discordant couples

Strategies are available to reduce the risk of HIV transmission using sperm from HIV-infected male.

Drug-resistant bacteria found in over 25% of nursing-home residents

Drug-resistant bacteria found in over 25% of nursing-home residents

Researchers found that multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria colonization prevalence ranged from 11.2% of residents to 59.1%.

HIV/AIDS epidemic could end by 2025 in the United States

HIV/AIDS epidemic could end by 2025 in the United States

Researchers predict that the infection rate could be as low as 12,000 people a year by 2025.

CDC finalizes cholera vaccine recommendation for international travelers

CDC finalizes cholera vaccine recommendation for international travelers

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Cholera, an acute, diarrheal illness, is spread by drinking water or eating food that is contaminated with cholera bacteria.

HPV vaccine effective against genital warts in 2 doses

HPV vaccine effective against genital warts in 2 doses

The researchers found that 2 doses of the HPV vaccine were just as protective as 3 doses.

First antibiotic prescription ineffective in 25% of pneumonia cases

First antibiotic prescription ineffective in 25% of pneumonia cases

About 1 in 4 adult patients with pneumonia do not respond to initial prescription of antibiotic treatment.

Preventing mosquito bites: recommendations from the CDC

Preventing mosquito bites: recommendations from the CDC

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The CDC recommends using an EPA-registered insect repellent, which is proven safe and effective, even for pregnant and breastfeeding women.

Preventing Lyme disease and tick bites: tips from the CDC

Preventing Lyme disease and tick bites: tips from the CDC

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Individuals have a higher risk of tick bites and tickborne diseases from May through July.

Methadone maintenance treatment reduces mortality in opioid-dependent patients

Methadone maintenance treatment reduces mortality in opioid-dependent patients

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In patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment, researchers observed, on average, 25 fewer deaths/1000 person years than in patients who discontinue it.

Inhaled corticosteroid use linked to increased pneumonia risk in asthma patients

Inhaled corticosteroid use linked to increased pneumonia risk in asthma patients

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The use of inhaled corticosteroids is associated with an increased risk of pneumonia in asthma patients.

Some antidiabetic agents may increase pneumonia risk in type 2 diabetes

Some antidiabetic agents may increase pneumonia risk in type 2 diabetes

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Compared with current use of metformin + sulfonylurea, the use of thiazolidinediones + metformin was associated with an increased risk of community-acquired pneumonia.

Benzodiazepines may increase risk of pneumonia in Alzheimer disease

Benzodiazepines may increase risk of pneumonia in Alzheimer disease

Clinicians should consider risk of pneumonia when weighing the benefits and risks of benzodiazepines in patients with Alzheimer disease.

Statins may lower risk of cirrhosis decompensation in HBV and HCV

Statins may lower risk of cirrhosis decompensation in HBV and HCV

Statin use decreased rates of decompensation in patients with liver cirrhosis due to HBV and HCV infections and in patients with alcohol-induced cirrhosis.

Norepinephrine shortage led to higher mortality in septic shock patients

Norepinephrine shortage led to higher mortality in septic shock patients

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Patients with septic shock taking phenylephrine during the 2011 norepinephrine shortage experienced higher in-hospital mortality rates.

Almost half of men and women under 60 in the US infected with HPV

Almost half of men and women under 60 in the US infected with HPV

However, the HPV vaccine has the potential to reverse the epidemic and prevent thousands of cancers in the United States each year.

Preventing chronic diseases with lifestyle changes

Preventing chronic diseases with lifestyle changes

A low-carbohydrate lifestyle is an effective treatment option to prevent chronic diseases.

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