Infectious Diseases

Clinical practice guideline for antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women with HIV

Clinical practice guideline for antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women with HIV

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Alternative treatments should be offered to pregnant women with HIV instead of tenofovir or emtricitabine.

Smartphone-based electronic reader reliable for point-of-care tests in HIV and <i>T pallidum</i> infections

Smartphone-based electronic reader reliable for point-of-care tests in HIV and T pallidum infections

The findings shed new light on the applicability of smartphone-based electronic readers in point-of-care testing.

Influenza vaccination rates drop in children when nasal spray is unavailable

Influenza vaccination rates drop in children when nasal spray is unavailable

Total influenza vaccination rates among children in the 2016 to 2017 influenza season dropped 1.6% from the year before.

Newer influenza diagnostic tests more accurate than traditional tests

Newer influenza diagnostic tests more accurate than traditional tests

Digital immunoassays and rapid nucleic acid amplification tests have higher sensitivities for detecting influenza than rapid influenza diagnostic tests.

PrEP adherence in adolescent MSM decreases over time

PrEP adherence in adolescent MSM decreases over time

Adherence decreased over time in adolescent MSM who participated in a 48-week HIV PrEP intervention.

CDC releases updated influenza vaccine recommendations for 2017-2018

CDC releases updated influenza vaccine recommendations for 2017-2018

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The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has released the guidelines for the 2017-2018 season.

FDA approves Chagas disease treatment for children

FDA approves Chagas disease treatment for children

The FDA has approved benznidazole to treat the tropical parasitic infection Chagas disease in children.

FDA approves Vabomere for UTI treatment

FDA approves Vabomere for UTI treatment

This approval provides an additional treatment option for patients with complicated urinary tract infection.

Sepsis, pneumonia lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease in men

Sepsis, pneumonia lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease in men

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Men who are admitted to the hospital with a serious infection may have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the years immediately following the infection.

Hypoxia, increased work of breathing outweigh tachypnea, auscultatory findings in diagnosing pneumonia

Hypoxia, increased work of breathing outweigh tachypnea, auscultatory findings in diagnosing pneumonia

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No single clinical observation reliably differentiates pneumonia from other causes of respiratory illness in children.

Infection risk increases with reduced kidney function

Infection risk increases with reduced kidney function

Researchers observed excess community-acquired infections incidence in individuals with mild to severe chronic kidney disease.

Diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia still a challenge

Diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia still a challenge

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Clinicians must rely on the combination of clinical examination, signs and symptoms, microbiologic testing, and radiographic findings to diagnose hospital-acquired pneumonia.

Influenza A virus transmitted from swine to humans at agricultural fair

Influenza A virus transmitted from swine to humans at agricultural fair

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Researchers found the H3N2 virus in swine at state fairs in Ohio and Michigan, which was transmitted to humans.

Live attenuated influenza vaccine ineffective in children during 2015-2016 season

Live attenuated influenza vaccine ineffective in children during 2015-2016 season

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The live attenuated vaccine was ineffective among children between 2 and 17 years of age during the 2015-2016 season.

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease in adults

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease in adults

The disease may often go undiagnosed in adults because clinicians may be relatively inexperienced in identifying childhood illnesses in adults.

Previous maternal influenza vaccine does not weaken newborn benefit

Previous maternal influenza vaccine does not weaken newborn benefit

Researchers found that in a cohort of pregnant women, receipt of influenza vaccine the previous year predicts higher baseline antibody titers and decreased peak antibody responses against all influenza strains.

Offering rapid HIV testing to patients increases overall testing rate in the emergency department

Offering rapid HIV testing to patients increases overall testing rate in the emergency department

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Rapid HIV testing offered in parallel to patient-clinician consultations increases the testing rate in the emergency department.

WHO releases new guidelines in response to pretreatment HIV drug resistance

WHO releases new guidelines in response to pretreatment HIV drug resistance

The new guidelines address the issue of how to manage pretreatment HIV drug resistance in countries where the prevalence of is 10% or higher.

Child with HIV suppresses virus without antiretroviral therapy for more than 8 years

Child with HIV suppresses virus without antiretroviral therapy for more than 8 years

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A child who was diagnosed with HIV at 1 month and received early treatment has suppressed the virus without anti-HIV therapy for 8.5 years.

Nodules on the scalp lead to a diagnosis of secondary syphilis

Nodules on the scalp lead to a diagnosis of secondary syphilis

A rare case reports a 51-year-old man who primarily presented with multiple nodules on his scalp.

VZV-related community-acquired pneumonia linked to morbidity, mortality

VZV-related community-acquired pneumonia linked to morbidity, mortality

The hospital and ICU mortality rates of critically ill patients with VZV-CAP were 24% and 17%, respectively.

Herpes zoster linked to increased risk of cardiovascular events

Herpes zoster linked to increased risk of cardiovascular events

The risks of both stroke and myocardial infarction were highest the first year after the onset of herpes zoster and decreased with time.

Algal blooms pose summertime health risk

Algal blooms pose summertime health risk

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Algal blooms produce toxins that can cause illness in people and animals and can block sunlight or use up oxygen in water, which can kill fish and plants.

The flu vaccine's influence on public health

The flu vaccine's influence on public health

Improving influenza vaccination rates will require a much greater commitment to preventative public health to change public perception of the importance and efficacy of flu vaccination.

Adverse events common in hospitalized patients taking antibiotics

Adverse events common in hospitalized patients taking antibiotics

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Many adverse events could be avoidable with more judicious use of antibiotics.

Emergency department visits for herpes zoster increased from 2006-2013

Emergency department visits for herpes zoster increased from 2006-2013

The number of emergency department visits for herpes zoster have increased from 2006 to 2013.

HIV testing rates low in young men who have sex with men

HIV testing rates low in young men who have sex with men

The CDC found that 28% of young men who have sex with men have undergone HIV testing, though they account for 83% of new diagnoses.

Chlorhexidine oral rinse solution ineffective for aspiration pneumonia

Chlorhexidine oral rinse solution ineffective for aspiration pneumonia

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Study findings suggest that nursing home residents should receive more guidance in using strategies to prevent aspiration during eating and drinking.

Hepatitis B vaccine reduces risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents

Hepatitis B vaccine reduces risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents

The universal vaccination against hepatitis B virus infection prevented non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents.

Maternal antibodies inhibit antigenic responses to vaccines in infants

Maternal antibodies inhibit antigenic responses to vaccines in infants

Vaccines given shortly after birth demonstrated a strong inhibitory response to maternal antibodies.

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