Infectious Diseases

Postpartum antiretroviral therapy is beneficial in HIV-positive women

Postpartum antiretroviral therapy is beneficial in HIV-positive women

Continued antiretroviral therapy was found to be safe and beneficial in HIV-positive postpartum women with high CD4+ T cell counts.

Treatment for chronic Lyme disease linked to serious adverse effects

Treatment for chronic Lyme disease linked to serious adverse effects

Clinicians and patients should be aware that treatments for chronic Lyme disease can carry serious risks.

Case Study: Fever and low platelets

Case Study: Fever and low platelets

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A 66-year-old woman with a history of sarcoidosis and hypertension presents to the emergency department for 4 days with right-sided abdominal pain, vomiting, fever, and mild diarrhea without blood.

Treatment for cutaneous abscesses

Treatment for cutaneous abscesses

Antibiotics do not always need to be used for cutaneous abscesses, but the condition must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to make a final decision regarding the appropriate course of treatment for any individual.

CDC: Legionnaires' disease widespread in healthcare facilities

CDC: Legionnaires' disease widespread in healthcare facilities

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About 76% of US jurisdictions reported healthcare-associated cases of Legionnaires' disease.

Study finds flu shots less effective for obese adults

Study finds flu shots less effective for obese adults

Study finds flu shots are less effective for obese adults compared to healthy weight individuals.

Conception methods available for reducing risk of transmission in HIV-discordant couples

Conception methods available for reducing risk of transmission in HIV-discordant couples

Strategies are available to reduce the risk of HIV transmission using sperm from HIV-infected male.

Drug-resistant bacteria found in over 25% of nursing-home residents

Drug-resistant bacteria found in over 25% of nursing-home residents

Researchers found that multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria colonization prevalence ranged from 11.2% of residents to 59.1%.

HIV/AIDS epidemic could end by 2025 in the United States

HIV/AIDS epidemic could end by 2025 in the United States

Researchers predict that the infection rate could be as low as 12,000 people a year by 2025.

CDC finalizes cholera vaccine recommendation for international travelers

CDC finalizes cholera vaccine recommendation for international travelers

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Cholera, an acute, diarrheal illness, is spread by drinking water or eating food that is contaminated with cholera bacteria.

HPV vaccine effective against genital warts in 2 doses

HPV vaccine effective against genital warts in 2 doses

The researchers found that 2 doses of the HPV vaccine were just as protective as 3 doses.

First antibiotic prescription ineffective in 25% of pneumonia cases

First antibiotic prescription ineffective in 25% of pneumonia cases

About 1 in 4 adult patients with pneumonia do not respond to initial prescription of antibiotic treatment.

Preventing mosquito bites: recommendations from the CDC

Preventing mosquito bites: recommendations from the CDC

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The CDC recommends using an EPA-registered insect repellent, which is proven safe and effective, even for pregnant and breastfeeding women.

Preventing Lyme disease and tick bites: tips from the CDC

Preventing Lyme disease and tick bites: tips from the CDC

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Individuals have a higher risk of tick bites and tickborne diseases from May through July.

Methadone maintenance treatment reduces mortality in opioid-dependent patients

Methadone maintenance treatment reduces mortality in opioid-dependent patients

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In patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment, researchers observed, on average, 25 fewer deaths/1000 person years than in patients who discontinue it.

Inhaled corticosteroid use linked to increased pneumonia risk in asthma patients

Inhaled corticosteroid use linked to increased pneumonia risk in asthma patients

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The use of inhaled corticosteroids is associated with an increased risk of pneumonia in asthma patients.

Some antidiabetic agents may increase pneumonia risk in type 2 diabetes

Some antidiabetic agents may increase pneumonia risk in type 2 diabetes

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Compared with current use of metformin + sulfonylurea, the use of thiazolidinediones + metformin was associated with an increased risk of community-acquired pneumonia.

Benzodiazepines may increase risk of pneumonia in Alzheimer disease

Benzodiazepines may increase risk of pneumonia in Alzheimer disease

Clinicians should consider risk of pneumonia when weighing the benefits and risks of benzodiazepines in patients with Alzheimer disease.

Statins may lower risk of cirrhosis decompensation in HBV and HCV

Statins may lower risk of cirrhosis decompensation in HBV and HCV

Statin use decreased rates of decompensation in patients with liver cirrhosis due to HBV and HCV infections and in patients with alcohol-induced cirrhosis.

Norepinephrine shortage led to higher mortality in septic shock patients

Norepinephrine shortage led to higher mortality in septic shock patients

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Patients with septic shock taking phenylephrine during the 2011 norepinephrine shortage experienced higher in-hospital mortality rates.

Almost half of men and women under 60 in the US infected with HPV

Almost half of men and women under 60 in the US infected with HPV

However, the HPV vaccine has the potential to reverse the epidemic and prevent thousands of cancers in the United States each year.

Preventing chronic diseases with lifestyle changes

Preventing chronic diseases with lifestyle changes

A low-carbohydrate lifestyle is an effective treatment option to prevent chronic diseases.

Gastric acid suppressants may increase risk of recurrent <i>Clostridium difficile</i> infection

Gastric acid suppressants may increase risk of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection

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A meta-analysis suggests that patients who take gastric acid suppressants may have a higher risk for recurrent CDI.

PCV10 vaccine decreases pneumonia rate in children

PCV10 vaccine decreases pneumonia rate in children

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PCV10 decreases rate of pneumonia among vaccine-eligible children and older, unvaccinated children.

High cardiac troponin levels may predict mortality in community-acquired pneumonia

High cardiac troponin levels may predict mortality in community-acquired pneumonia

Elevated cardiac troponin T is also strongly prognostic of cardiac mortality observed in association with community-acquired pneumonia.

Antibiotic prescribing in primary care varies for community-acquired pneumonia

Antibiotic prescribing in primary care varies for community-acquired pneumonia

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Factors that contribute to antibiotic choice for CAP include patient age, previous antibiotic receipt, and private insurance.

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine reduces <i>Streptococcus pneumoniae</i> bacteremia

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine reduces Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia

Researchers observed a 95.3% reduction of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia after implementation of routine immunization with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

Septic shock: early, goal-directed therapy versus usual care

Septic shock: early, goal-directed therapy versus usual care

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Early, goal-directed therapy did not result in better outcomes for mortality for patients with septic shock.

Adolescents not seeking STD services due to confidentiality issues

Adolescents not seeking STD services due to confidentiality issues

Adolescents might not seek care or might delay seeking care for STD services because of concerns about confidentiality, including fears that their parents might find out.

HPV educational session may boost vaccination rates in high school students

HPV educational session may boost vaccination rates in high school students

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The students improved their basic knowledge of HPV and understood the benefits of the HPV vaccine.

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