Scoliosis is a curving of the spine that worsens with growth spurts. Scoliosis begins as a sideways curvature of the spine that typically begins in childhood and progresses to an S-shaped curve. There are three general etiologies: congenital, neuromuscular and idiopathic. Congenital forms of scoliosis occur in the womb or during early life and involve deformities of the vertebrae or ribs. Neuromuscular scoliosis results from muscle weakness or paralysis, which can occur with diseases including cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, spina bifida and poliomyelitis.