Screening for endometrial cancer
X-ray of a uterus showing an adenocarcinoma (pink).
While both these modalities are options for first-line screening, endometrial biopsy is the more sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of endometrial cancer. Endometrial biopsy can also reveal other non-neoplastic conditions (e.g., hormonal imbalances). The indication for testing may help determine which test is optimal for your patient. While endometrial biopsy is preferable in a woman with dysfunctional uterine bleeding, a woman taking a medication like tamoxifen (Nolvadex) may require recurrent monitoring, making ultrasound a less invasive and more tolerable option. Abnormal transvaginal ultrasound findings (typically any measurement >5 mm) should be followed up with endometrial biopsy for definitive diagnosis. For information comparing these procedures, see N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1792-1798.—Lisa Stern, APRN (137-5)