Since 2002, the urine test of choice is a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), which is a spot urine test.
An older male patient started antidepressants for neuropathy pain but developed hyponatremia as a result.
Patient with back pain and blood in urine is diagnosed with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
Each patient loses 0.8% kidney function/year after the age of 30. If you round this to a loss of 1% per year (for simplicity), you can calculate if a GFR is normal for a patient’s age.
In specific situations, clinicians should monitor a patient’s metformin use in order to prevent dialysis and higher risk of kidney failure.