Ravindra Sarode

All articles by Ravindra Sarode

Bleeding Associated with Warfarin Therapy

At a Glance Approximately 3 million Americans are on vitamin K antagonist therapy (VKA) for a variety of clinical conditions, including thrombophilia, cardiac conditions, and stroke. Warfarin is a VKA that interferes with recycling of vitamin K (VK) in hepatocytes by inhibiting mainly epoxide reductase (see chapter on VK deficiency). The therapeutic INR of 2-3.5…

Vitamin K Deficiency

At a Glance Deficiency of vitamin K (VK) in healthy individuals is very rare because of adequate intake of a wide variety of food items, especially green leafy vegetables (e.g., kale, spinach, broccoli), recycling of VK within hepatocytes, and normal gut flora. Its daily requirement is 100-200 ug (microgram), and the body’s reserve is adequate…

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