Cardiovascular Information Center Archive

Case Study: Cardiovascular Complications of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

A 55-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease reports having some mild chest pain.

Hypertension Increase in Children Based on 2017 AAP Guidelines

Increase in estimated population prevalence of elevated blood pressure from 11.8 to 14.2%.

Smartphone App May Boost Medication Adherence in Hypertension

But use of the app not linked to a change in systolic blood pressure in poorly controlled hypertension

Study Finds Safe Alcohol Consumption Guidelines May Not Be Strict Enough

Among current drinkers without previous diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, the threshold for lowest risk of all-cause mortality is about 100 g of alcohol consumed per week.

Women Less Likely to Fill Post-MI Statin Prescription

Fifty-six percent of men, 47% of women filled high-intensity statin after myocardial infarction

Eating Pecans May Cut Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes

Benefits seen in markers of cardiometabolic disease, including insulin sensitivity

Coffee Consumption Cuts Coronary Artery Calcification

There is an inverse association between coffee consumption and coronary artery calcium, especially among never smokers.

Aortic valve replacement linked to increased mortality in elderly

Aside from age, other high mortality factors included left ventricular dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, COPD, and diabetes.

Antidepressants, depression may increase atrial fibrillation risks

According to research presented at the 2018 American Heart Association's Epidemiology and Prevention/Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health Scientific Sessions in New Orleans.

FDA: World's smallest mechanical heart valve approved for newborns with heart defects

The world's smallest mechanical heart valve was approved by the FDA for newborns and young infants with heart defects.

High total cholesterol linked to lower risk of cognitive decline in elderly

Cognitive decline risk is lowered in individuals aged 85 and older with high cholesterol.

Cholesterol drug may lower risk for death and cardiovascular events

Alirocumab significantly decreased severe cardiovascular risks in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

Oral fluoroquinolone use is linked to increased aortic aneurysm, dissection risks

Aortic aneurysm risks are significantly elevated in patients taking fluoroquinolone.

Undiagnosed CV events low for elderly patients in emergency department

Medicare patients with ED visits pertaining to imminent ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms, stroke, acute myocardial infarctions, or other cardiovascular relating events are very likely to be diagnosed prior to hospital discharge.

Varicose veins associated with increased risk of deep venous thrombosis

There is a significant association between varicose veins and an increased risk for deep venous thrombosis and possible associations with pulmonary embolism and peripheral artery disease, though results are still unclear.

Noninvasive coronary testing may prevent need for future invasive tests

Low-risk acute coronary syndrome patients may require fewer referrals for invasive coronary angiography if they had initial noninvasive testing such as stress echocardiography or cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

Obesity associated with elevated CVD mortality, morbidity

Obesity is affiliated with elevated morbidity, cardiovascular disease related mortality, and shorter longevity compared with individuals with a normal body mass index.

ACC: Changes in temperature linked to STEMI

Large changes in temperature are associated with increased risk of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Cancer history affects mortality risk independent of CV risk

Cancer history has an important impact on mortality independent of cardiovascular risk factors.

Cardiac surgery during flu season linked to ARDS

Undergoing cardiac surgery during the influenza season is associated with increased likelihood of development of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Patent foramen ovale associated with stroke risk after noncardiac surgery

Patients diagnosed with PFO prior to noncardiac surgery have an elevated ischemic stroke risk.

Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes modified for cardiovascular disease

The ADA's updates include a modified patient-focused care algorithm as well as improved risk management for CVD.

Migraine associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events

Migraines are linked to cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction, VTE, and stroke.

Gestational diabetes increases T2D, hypertension, heart disease risk

Women with gestational diabetes have a greater risk of developing T2D and cardiovascular events than women who were not previously diagnosed with the disease.

Breastfeeding may lower hypertension risk in postmenopausal women

Breastfeeding duration and frequency may help reduce hypertension risks.

NFL players do not have significantly increased mortality risk

Among NFL football players who began their careers between 1982 and 1992, career participation in the NFL, compared with limited NFL exposure obtained primarily as an NFL replacement player during a league-wide strike, was not associated with a statistically significant difference in long-term all-cause mortality.

Heart failure, hearing loss linked in older patients

Patients with heart failure might have a greater risk for cardiovascular comorbidities and hearing loss.

Depressive symptoms may increase mortality risk in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement

In patients undergoing TAVR or SAVR, approximately 1 in 3 had depressive symptoms at baseline and a higher risk of short-term and midterm mortality.

Acute ischemic stroke: new guidelines open treatment window to 24 hours

At the 2018 International Stroke Conference in Los Angeles, the AHA/ASA released updated guidelines for the early management of ischemic strokes, which account for 87% of all strokes.

Evidence of marijuana's effect on cardiovascular events still scarce

Future studies may help to assess the relation between chronic marijuana use and cardiovascular risks.

Early menarche, menopause linked to increased CVD risk

Several reproductive variables were independently linked to increased CVD risks.

USPSTF: Evidence insufficient for unconventional CVD risk factors

According to the USPSTF, evidence is lacking to investigate nontraditional risk factors for CVD risk evaluation.

New long-acting bronchodilator use linked to CV risk in COPD patients

Use of long-acting bronchodilators is linked to cardiovascular risks in patients with COPD.

Mechanically expanded TAVR may benefit high-risk aortic stenosis patients

MEV aortic valve replacement is noninferior to SEV aortic valve replacement in high-risk patients with aortic stenosis.

Addition of new class of antihypertensive drug effective for lowering BP

Addition of a new class of antihypertensive drugs to existing treatment greatly decreases SBP in previously medicated patients with HT.

Positive attitude linked to lower mortality risk after cardiovascular event

Positive emotions and low levels of depression after a cardiovascular disease (CVD) event are associated with low risk for mortality during a 15-year period.

USPSTF screening recommendation for use of ECG in atrial fibrillation, CVD

The USPSTF has found that the current evidence is inadequate to assess the benefits and harms of screening with ECG for atrial fibrillation and cardiovascular disease in older adults.

Ginkgo biloba extract aids cognition in stroke patients

Ginkgo biloba extract, along with aspiring, may help cognition in acute ischemic stroke patients.

Compression ultrasounds assist GPs in diagnosing DVTs

Accuracy was 95.8% for DVT diagnosis for general practitioners using compression ultrasonography.

AAFP does not endorse new hypertension guideline

The AAFP continues to use the 2014 JNC8 guideline instead of the 2017 AHA/ACC update.

Blood pressure decreases more than a decade before death

Blood pressure decreases more than a decade before death in patients older than 60 years.

VTE risk linked to increased television watching

Increased frequency of television viewing may be linked to an increased risk for venous thromboembolism.

DOACs vs warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation

Many direct acting oral anticoagulants may be more beneficial than warfarin.

Low-dose aspirin ineffective for venous leg ulcers

Low-dose aspirin does not decrease healing time for patients with venous leg ulcers.

Endovascular strategy more effective than open repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms

Treating patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms with endovascular strategy over open repair may increase survival and decrease cost.

FDA warns that febuxostat may increase risk of heart-related mortality

Preliminary clinical trial results show more heart-related deaths occur in patients taking febuxostat compared to allopurinol.

AHA, ACC release new clinical guideline for managing hypertension in adults

The AHA and ACC have released a new guideline that categorizes more US adults as hypertensive.

Statins associated with increased risk of diabetes in high-risk individuals

Statins are associated with an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes, especially for high-risk individuals.

Dual antithrombotic therapy with dabigatran reduces bleeding risk after PCI in atrial fibrillation

Dual therapy with dabigatran and a P2Y12 inhibitor resulted in a lower risk of bleeding events compared with triple therapy with warfarin, a P2Y12 inhibitor, and aspirin.

Appropriate use criteria developed for aortic stenosis

Appropriate use criteria for the treatment of patients with severe aortic stenosis includes the use of surgical aortic valve replacement and transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

PPI use associated with risk of stroke, myocardial infarction

Use of PPIs was associated with increased risks of first -time ischemic stroke and MI, particularly among long -term users and at high doses.

Direct oral anticoagulants vs warfarin for bleeding risk in VTE

Compared with warfarin, treatment with DOACs was not associated with an increased risk of major bleeding or all-cause mortality within the first 90 days.

Statin use decreases the risk of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus

Compared with nonusers, current statin users experienced markedly decreased risk of CA-SAB.

Mid-adulthood hypertension linked to dementia risk in women

Among women, but not men, mid-adulthood hypertension correlated with a 65% increased dementia risk.

Aspirin discontinuation increases risk of cardiovascular events

Patients who discontinued aspirin use experience a higher risk of cardiovascular events.

New criteria developed for valvular heart disease testing

The report addresses the appropriate use of multiple imaging modalities available for clinicians in the evaluation of valvular heart disease, discussing the spectrum of patients.

Hormone replacement therapy for menopause not associated with increased mortality risk

The researchers found no long-term increase in either all-cause or cause-specific mortality among women who received hormone therapy for up to 5.6 years or 7.2 years, depending on the type of therapy.

Metabolically healthy obese individuals have increased risk of CVD events

Compared with normal-weight individuals, metabolically healthy obese individuals have an increased risk of coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and heart failure

Vitamin D supplements reduce depressive symptoms, cardiac events in moderate to severe depression

In patients with depressive symptoms, vitamin D deficiency with no additional supplements had the highest depressive score at 6 months and shortest cardiac event-free survival.

Managing hypertension in diabetes: a position statement from the ADA

The statement includes advances in care since the ADA's last position statement was published in 2003.

Natriuretic peptide-guided therapy does not improve outcomes in high-risk heart failure patients

NT-proBNP-guided treatment strategy did not improve outcomes compared with a usual care strategy in high-risk patients with heart failure.

Anti-inflammatory drug may reduce risk of cardiovascular events, lung cancer

The findings offer the first strong clinical evidence that inflammation-targeted therapy may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Sepsis, pneumonia lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease in men

Men who are admitted to the hospital with a serious infection may have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the years immediately following the infection.

Managing high blood pressure in children: a clinical practice guideline

The AAP has released an updated clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure in children.

Comparing anticoagulants to prevent venous thromboembolism after hip and knee arthroplasty

Fondaparinux and rivaroxaban were associated with increased risk of major bleeding in patients who underwent total hip or knee arthroplasty.

Increased mortality for percutaneous coronary intervention at safety-net hospitals

Risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality is significantly increased at safety-net hospitals for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

Stroke incidence has decreased over time in men

The incidence of all strokes decreased over time in men, but not women, due to a decrease in ischemic stroke.

Marijuana use increases risk of hypertension-related mortality

Researchers found higher estimated cardiovascular risks associated with marijuana use than cigarette smoking.

Human embryo editing repairs genetic mutation that causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

The gene-editing tool called CRISPR-Cas9 could have the potential to treat and prevent other genetic diseases.

CVD prevention: New USPSTF guidelines for lifestyle counseling

The USPSTF updated their 2012 recommendations on behavior lifestyle counseling for preventing cardiovascular disease.

Ending statin therapy after initial stroke increases risk of recurrence

Stopping statin therapy 3 to 6 months after an initial ischemic stroke may increase risk of a recurrent stroke.

New data show aspirin safe for heart failure patients

Data from a clinical trial show that patients taking daily aspirin were not at heightened risk of being hospitalized for heart failure.

Moderate weight gain in early to middle adulthood linked to increased risk of chronic diseases

Adulthood weight gain is associated with an increased risk of major chronic diseases and mortality.

Higher childhood intelligence linked to lower mortality risk

Researchers sought to examine the link between intelligence scores during childhood and leading causes of death during the life course.

CPAP not effective in reducing cardiovascular events, mortality

The use of PAP, compared with no treatment or sham, was not associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular outcomes or death for patients with sleep apnea.

Idarucizumab reverses anticoagulant effect of dabigatran in emergency situations

Researchers found that idarucizumab is effective for dabigatran reversal among patients with uncontrolled bleeding and who are undergoing urgent surgery.

Opioid use increases risk of cardiac events in older COPD patients

Users of opioid-only agents had significantly increased rates of emergency room visits and hospitalizations for ischemic heart disease and IHD-related mortality.

Heart failure hospitalization rate declining in the United States

There were 526.86 hospital admissions for every 100,000 people in 2002, compared with 364.66 per 100,000 in 2013.

Managing patients with chronic heart failure

Clinicians will encounter more patients at risk for CHF as the population ages and cardiovascular risk factors become more prevalent.

Antiplatelet drug use may lead to bleeding risk in elderly

The researchers found that during 13,509 patient-years of follow-up, 3166 patients had 405 first bleeding events.

Many patients taking NOACs for atrial fibrillation may not be receiving correct dose

Researchers found that 16% of patients received doses inconsistent with US Food and Drug Administration labeling.

Restarting anticoagulation may be cost-effective in some VTE cases

The therapy may be cost-effective for patients with a predicted 1-year VTE risk of 17.5% or more.

Reducing blood pressure below recommended targets significantly reduces CVD, mortality risk

Blood pressure levels below the recommended targets lower risk of CVD and all-cause mortality.

Regular chocolate consumption may lower atrial fibrillation risk

Compared with individuals reporting chocolate intake less than once per month, the rate of AF was lower for people consuming chocolate regularly.

Statins vs usual care for primary cardiovascular prevention in older adults

The ALLHAT-LLT trial showed that statin therapy for primary cardiovascular prevention may not benefit adults older than 65 years of age.

Vitamin D not effective for preventing cardiovascular disease

CVD occurred in 11.8% of participants in the vitamin D group and 11.5% in the placebo group.

Screening for preeclampsia throughout pregnancy recommended by USPSTF

The USPSTF recommends that pregnant women receive screening for preeclampsia with blood pressure measurements throughout pregnancy.

Apixaban linked to lower risk of gastrointestinal bleeding

Apixaban is associated with a lower risk of gastrointestinal bleeding than rivaroxaban or dabigatran.

Statin eligibility differs between ACC/AHA vs USPSTF guidelines

Nine million fewer adults would be taking statins if clinicians followed the USPSTF guidelines.

Undiagnosed chest pain may increase long-term cardiovascular risk

Most patients in primary care with undiagnosed chest pain do not undergo diagnostic testing.

Moderate alcohol consumption linked to lower risk of some types of cardiovascular disease

The researchers found heterogeneity in the association between recorded alcohol consumption and the initial presentation of 12 cardiovascular diseases.

Knee osteoarthritis linked to increased risk of hypertension

Researchers observed a higher incidence of hypertension in patients with knee osteoarthritis compared with patients without osteoarthritis.

Valvular heart disease: 2017 updated guideline from the AHA/ACC

The updated guideline includes recent advances in diagnostic imaging and improvements in catheter-based and surgical interventions for patients with valvular heart disease.

Statins may reduce pulmonary artery pressure in COPD patients

A daily dose of atorvastatin could reduce pulmonary artery pressure among patients with COPD.

Physical activity important for adults with CVD

In older adults, the consequences of functional impairment include increased morbidity and mortality, and reduced ability to perform activities of daily living.

ICU may be overused for some patients with heart or lung disease

Researchers also observed no difference in 30-day mortality rates between patients in the ICU and those who received regular inpatient care in another hospital unit.

Dabigatran linked to fewer bleeding complications in patients with atrial fibrillation

Anticoagulation with dabigatran was associated with fewer bleeding complications compared with warfarin among patients undergoing ablation for atrial fibrillation.

Coronary reperfusion improved with longer time between antiplatelet therapy and PCI

A longer period between P2Y12 inhibitor administration and primary percutaneous coronary intervention improves coronary reperfusion.

Same-day discharge may be safe for patients after percutaneous coronary intervention

Same-day discharge after percutaneous coronary intervention for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes was not predictive of 30-day readmission, death, or bleeding.

Hospitalization, mortality rates higher for heart failure patients in winter

Researchers find that hospitalizations and deaths among heart failure patients are highest during winter months.

Sign Up for Free e-newsletters