Diet & Nutrition Information Center Archive

Dark Chocolate Linked to Enhanced Visual Acuity

Compared with milk chocolate, dark chocolate was associated with improved low, high-contrast sensitivity and visual acuity in short durations.

Vitamin D Insufficiency Associated With Insulin Resistance Independent of Obesity in Children

Further clinical trials are needed to explore the potential beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation, via fortified foods and/or dietary supplements, on insulin resistance, and possibly on weight management.

Combining Spinal Manipulation and Exercise for Low Back Pain in Adolescents

A combination of self-care education, aerobic and strength-training exercise, and spinal manipulation therapy may provide greater pain relief and improved treatment satisfaction compared with exercise only in adolescents with low back pain.

USPSTF Issues Recommendation for Vitamin D, Calcium Supplementation for Fracture Prevention

The USPSTF has released recommendations for vitamin D and calcium supplementation for the primary prevention of fractures in community-dwelling adults.

Tai Chi May Be Therapeutic Option for Fibromyalgia

Tai chi interventions may be more effective at treating fibromyalgia than aerobic exercise.

Maternal Probiotic, Fish Oil Intake Linked to Offspring Immune Development

Maternal diet may be correlated with certain autoimmune-associated diseases in offspring.

Physical fitness in adolescence impacts adult lung performance

Involvement in aerobic fitness activities helps adolescents and children increase lung volume as adults but does not improve airway caliber.

High vitamin D concentration associated with lower cancer risk

A higher concentration of plasma vitamin D is correlated with a decreased risk of total cancer.

Low-fat vs low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss

Is there a significant difference between low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets on weight loss?

Pediatric obesity rate may decrease with special nutrition programs

Severe obesity may decline in children enrolled in specialized diet programs.

High fitness level associated with lower waist circumference, independent of BMI

The investigators studied the association between abdominal fat, inflammation, and fitness by measuring body weight, dimensions, and blood samples.

Takeout meal consumption linked to adverse health risks in children

The increased rate of takeout meal consumption was correlated with higher total fat intake and lower intake of vitamin C, iron, and calcium.

Low caffeine level may be biomarker for Parkinson disease

Caffeine and its 3 downstream metabolites may be helpful as a biomarker for Parkinson disease.

Maternal folic acid, multivitamin use linked to reduced autism risk

Use of folic acid or multivitamins during pregnancy is associated with a significantly reduced risk of ASD in offspring.

CDC investigating E. coli outbreak in 13 states

An outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 have been reported in 13 states in the US as well as Canada.

Green leafy vegetable consumption linked to slower cognitive decline

Intake of primary nutrients and bioactives in green leafy vegetables is associated with slower cognitive decline.

Higher education may help reduce Alzheimer's disease risk

Attaining higher education may aid in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

Body mass index and dementia risk: Is there a connection?

Higher BMI is associated with increased dementia risk when weight was measured more than 20 years before dementia diagnosis, but this association is reversed when BMI was assessed less than 10 years before dementia diagnosis.

Drinking 3 to 4 cups of coffee per day linked to potential health benefits

Meta-analyses suggest that drinking 3-4 cups of coffee a day has more associated health benefits than risks.

FDA tips for holiday food health, safety

The FDA has published recommendations to prevent foodborne illnesses during the holiday season.

Low-fat diets may reduce all-cause mortality risk in obese patients

Weight-loss diets low in fat and saturated fat consumption, with or without added exercise, may reduce the risk for all-cause mortality in obese adults.

Exercise with interval therapy reduces fall risk

Exercise and various combinations of interventions were associated with lower risk of injurious falls compared with usual care.

Short-term probiotics linked to lower fat percentage in overweight, obese patients

The meta-analysis showed that short-term probiotic supplementation reduced body weight, BMI, and fat percentage, but the effect sizes were small.

Herbal, dietary supplements commonly mislabeled

Mislabeling of herbal and dietary supplements is common, occurring in more than half of products tested.

Cognitive behavioral group therapy ineffective for weight maintenance in type 2 diabetes

CBGT did not prevent overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes from regaining weight lost during weight loss programs.

Gastric bypass surgery effective for weight loss, diabetes prevention for 12 years

The 12-year results show that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass offered long-term durability of weight loss and was associated with fewer obesity-related coexisting conditions compared with those who did not have the surgery.

Coffee consumption associated with reduced liver cancer risk, no link to biliary tract cancer

No significant association was observed between coffee consumption and risk of biliary tract cancer, but there was evidence of an inverse correlation between coffee consumption and liver cancer risk.

Mediterranean diet, antioxidant supplements beneficial for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

A Mediterranean diet with antioxidant supplementation contributes to improving lipid profile and insulin sensitivity parameters in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Sugar consumption linked to increased risk of mood disorders

Research reveals an adverse effect of sugar intake from sweet foods and beverages on long-term psychological health.

CVD prevention: New USPSTF guidelines for lifestyle counseling

The USPSTF updated their 2012 recommendations on behavior lifestyle counseling for preventing cardiovascular disease.

Alcohol screening and brief intervention: A practice manual for clinicians

The AAFP has created an alcohol screening practice manual to help family physicians prevent alcohol misuse.

Coffee consumption associated with lower mortality risk

Coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality for men and women, specifically in African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites.

Frequent coffee and herbal tea consumption linked to lower liver stiffness

The Rotterdam Study found that frequent coffee and herbal tea consumption is associated with lower liver stiffness in the general population.

High-dose vitamin D supplement use increasing, poses risk of adverse effects

Although research has emphasized the possible benefits of vitamin D, high dosages pose potential risks.

DASH diet associated with lower risk of gout

The DASH diet could offer a dietary strategy that may help prevent gout and its comorbidities in high-risk patients with hyperuricemia.

One alcoholic drink per day may increase breast cancer risk

Drinking the equivalent of a small glass of wine or beer a day increases pre-menopausal breast cancer risk by 5% and post-menopausal breast cancer risk by 9%.

FODMAP diet effective for irritable bowel syndrome

Implementation of the FODMAP diet is an effective strategy to manage symptoms of IBS, including bloating and abdominal pain.

Nearly half of all cardiometabolic deaths linked to poor diet

Suboptimal intake of 10 specific dietary factors is associated with a substantial proportion of deaths due to heart disease, stroke, or type 2 diabetes.

CDC: Two-thirds of US youth consume at least one sugar-sweetened beverage per day

Overall, US youth consumed an average 143 kcal from sugar-sweetened beverages, with boys consuming a higher percentage of calories than girls.

FDA and EPA release final recommendations for fish consumption in pregnant women

For adults, the recommended serving size of fish is 4 ounces, while servings for children should be smaller based on their age and calorie intake.

Oily fish consumption may lower diabetic retinopathy risk in type 2 diabetes

A target intake of at least 500 mg/d is recommended to combat sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy.

Whole grain consumption reduces chronic disease, all-cause mortality

Reductions in disease risk were observed for an intake as high as 7.5 servings of whole grains per day.

Consuming fiber from bread, cereal, fruits may improve aging process

Consuming dietary fiber from bread, cereal, and fruit may increase the likelihood of successful aging over 10 years.

Fruit consumption linked to lower breast cancer risk

Fruit intake in adolescence may be associated with decreased breast cancer rates in adulthood.

Stroke risk reduced with DASH diet

Researchers found a statistically significant link between modified DASH diet score and risk of ischemic stroke.

Healthy diet reduces hypertension risk after gestational diabetes

Women who had gestational diabetes may be able to reduce their risk of developing hypertension by eating a healthy diet.

Greater gluten intake before age 2 may increase risk of celiac disease

High gluten intake during the first 2 years of life was associated with an increased risk of celiac disease during childhood.

Updated dietary guidelines focus on healthy eating patterns, disease prevention

HHS and USDA have released the latest edition of dietary guidelines for Americans that focus on healthy eating patterns and preventing chronic diseases.

Pumpkin provides year-round health benefits

As the pumpkin takes center stage this holiday season, read about the many benefits that the super fruit can provide year round.

Low-fat diets do not increase long-term weight loss

Compared with other dietary interventions, low-fat diets are not more effective for long-term weight loss.

Processed meats cause colorectal cancer in humans, according to WHO

A report from WHO found that processed meat causes colorectal cancer, and red meat is positively associated with several cancers.

Southern-style diet linked 
to risk for heart disease

A Southern diet included added fats, fried food, and processed meats raises the risk for acute coronary heart disease.

Trans fats are linked to death and heart disease

Compared with saturated fats, consuming trans fats results in high mortality rates from all causes and from heart disease.

Mediterranean diet improves cognitive function in adults with CVD risk

Mediterranean diet is associated with improved cognitive function in older adults with high 
cardiovascular risk.

Mediterranean diet and cognition

Adhering to a Mediterranean diet may help fight against cognitive decline in older adults.

Addressing added sugar in kids' diets

Educating parents on the importance of healthy diet, and how to read nutrition labels, can help reduce the high intake of added sugars in kids' diets.

Nurse practitioners important health, wellness role models

Evidence-based interventions needed to create wellness cultures and encourage healthy behavior change in NPs.

Vitamin D aids weight loss in obese, overweight patients

A significantly greater weight decrease was observed in patients assigned to receive vitamin D compared with patients who had no supplementation.

Modest caffeine consumption may reduce liver scarring in patients with hepatitis C

About 100 milligrams of caffeine was associated with a one-third reduction of advanced liver scarring.

Consider nutrition, diet in mental disorder care

A collaboration is encouraging psychiatry and public health to recognize the relationships between diet and mental health.

How effective is a low-glycemic diet?

In overweight adults, a low-glycemic diet did not improve insulin sensitivity, lipid levels, or blood pressure.

Prolonged sitting linked to adverse health

Spending a long time during the day sitting increases the risk of heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and death.

Diet, alcohol consumption effect psoriasis symptoms

Overweight and obese psoriasis patients should to lose weight and increase physical activity as a way to improve psoriasis symptoms.

Heart not protected by vitamins

Multivitamins did not decrease the risk of developing cardiovascular disease in women.

Caffeine intake by children, teens studied

Nearly 25% of children aged 12 to 19 years who reported consuming caffeine exceeded an intake of 2.5 mg/kg.

Raw cow's milk may protect against respiratory infection in infants

When compared with processed milk, raw milk consumption was inversely associated with occurrence of rhinitis, respiratory tract infections, otitis, and fever.

Polyunsaturated fat intake associated with better cholesterol readings

Overall cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio differed as much as 18% in participants who ate a diet with unsaturated fats versus saturated fats.

Family meals help in fight against childhood obesity

Children whose families participated in family meal time were less likely to be overweight or obese.

Healthy habits can cut female stroke risk in half

Females who reported moderate alcohol intake, not smoking, physical activity, maintaining a healthy weight, and eating a nutritional diet were 54% less likely to have a stroke.

Breastfeeding, delaying gluten won't lower risk of celiac disease

Breastfeeding, waiting to introduce foods with gluten doesn't prevent autoimmune disorder

Five healthy habits may prevent 79% of heart attacks in men

Initial myocardial infarctions could be prevented in four out of five male patients with a proper combination of healthy lifestyle choices.

Reducing cost of low-calorie foods encourages fruit, veggie intake

Discounting the price of low-calorie foods such as fruits and vegetables increased the likelihood of purchasing more healthful options in low-income families.

High-fat dairy products cut type 2 diabetes risk

Incidence of type 2 diabetes was lower in patients who reported higher intakes of high-fat dairy compared with patients who reported lower intake.

High potassium intake lowers stroke, mortality risk

The association between ischemic stroke risk and potassium intake was strongest in nonhypertensive senior female patients.

Can a 'soda tax' cut down child obesity?

An excise tax on sugar-sweetened beverages such as soda is the most effective way to racial disparities in the prevalence of childhood obesity.

Offer behavioral counseling for obese, overweight patients with CVD risk

The USPSTF recommends primary-care providers refer or offer behavioral counseling for obese patients at risk of cardiovascular disease.

Stay alert for malnutrition in older patients

Sixty percent of older patients presenting to emergency department are malnourished or at risk.

Does lowering sodium intake benefit or hurt CVD risk?

Three studies provide further evidence for complex link between sodium intake, cardiac health.

Does losing weight make patients happier?

Patients who reported losing more than 5% of their body weight also reported depressed moods more often.

Eating beans, lentils, and peas aids weight loss

Patients reported feeling 31% more full after eating one serving of dietary pulses.

Dieting young triggers greater health complications later in life

In young women, dieting at a younger age predicts obesity, extreme weight control measures, and alcohol misuse.

Dietary salt intake linked to CVD in patients with T2D

Sodium reduction has been encouraged in guidelines for diabetes care in many countries.

Long-term weight loss decreases diabetes risk

Steady weight-loss over two years was a stronger predictor of reducing diabetes risk, compared with six months of weight-loss.

Should you advise patients to eat organic?

A new study suggests organically grown produce and grains contain less cadmium and more antioxidants.

Behavioral weight-loss program may reduce hot flashes

Hot flash reduction was reported as a motivator for weight loss.

Healthy lifestyle choices lower future CAD risk

Low alcohol intake, healthy diet, low and physical activity decreased coronary artery calcification after 20 years.

Malnutrition increases hypertension risk later in life

Patients who survived early malnutrition are reported to have weakened cardiovascular structure and function.

Can farmers' markets increase healthy food purchases in poor patients?

A program incentivizing farmers' market purchases increased purchases made from those on food assistance.

Dietary supplement usage up

The main reasons given for using dietary supplements were "for overall health and wellness" and "to fill nutrient gaps in the diet."

Diabetes drug may aid in weight loss

Higher weight loss and improvements in insulin secretion were found in patients assigned liraglutide with exercise and diet.

Encourage heart-healthy dietary choices

Offering specific recommendations may be more beneficial to patients than food plate/pyramid nutritional guidelines.

Advise patients to eat whole grains for health

More than 90% of American adults and children fall short of the daily recommendations for fiber intake.

Type 2 diabetics benefit more from 2 meals/day

Compared with eating the same amount of calories spread across 6 meals, research suggests that eating 2 bigger meals decreased weight and hepatic fat content.

Physical inactivity tops heart risk factors

Lack of exercise leads ahead of smoking, high BMI and hypertension as the biggest preventable risk in heart disease for female patients over age 30 years.

Eating more fruits and veggies reduces stroke risk

Consuming fruits and vegetables high in potassium, fiber, folate and antioxidants can lessen a patient's risk of stroke.

Behavioral therapy cuts CVD risk in obese patients

USPSTF has released a draft recommendation considering the benefits of intensive behavioral counseling to prevent CVD in high-risk patients.

Chronic stress increases unhealthy diet risks

Patients with higher stress levels reported to be more susceptible to the metabolic risks associated with high-sugar and high-fat diet.

AHA issues guidelines to prevent repeat stroke

New recommendations to prevent future stroke in patients with TIA and stroke include treating hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and modifying lifestyle habits.

Coffee may cut type 2 diabetes risk

New research suggests that those who drink an additional cup of coffee a day are less likely to develop type 2 diabetes.

High protein diet increases type 2 diabetes risk

Incidences of type 2 diabetes increased in obese women with high total and animal protein intake.

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