The first step for managing a patient with diarrhea is to determine the severity of dehydration according to the estimated volume loss and the symptoms and signs noted on physical examination.
Intimate partner violence was reported in over 30% of female psychiatric patients.
A 52-year-old man presents to the emergency department with dizziness and fatigue after a syncopal episode on a camping trip.
A 33-year-old man presents to the emergency department for 6 small spots on his chest, arms, and legs that gradually grew in diameter after using a topical cream and cephalexin.
Primary prevention efforts such as exercise, weight control, cessation of smoking, and alcohol intake can greatly affect the development of CAD.
UTIs present clinically as dysuria, with symptoms of frequent and urgent urination secondary to irritation of the urethral and bladder mucosa.
A 42-year-old man presents to the emergency department with vertigo that is worse with head motion as well as vomiting, but has no headache or abdominal pain.
A 55-year-old obese woman with hypertension, diabetes, and scleroderma is referred for follow-up after a recent admission for new-onset heart failure.
Because of the high number of unintended pregnancies and the effectiveness of LARCs, they should be a first-line contraceptive option for most women.
The FIT and the MT-sDNA are evidence-based tests that should be considered for CRC screening when a colonoscopy cannot be performed.
A 64-year-old woman presents to an urgent care clinic with 24 hours of left foot pain. She states that she tweaked it while jogging. The pain is localized to the lateral portion of her foot.
The importance of male vaccination cannot be overemphasized, because the risk of male-to-female HPV transmission is significant.
A 60-year-old man with a history of gastroesophageal reflux disease presents to the emergency department with 2 to 3 days of fever, non-bloody diarrhea, and a worsening non-pruritic rash.
A 32-year-old woman presents to an urgent care clinic with a sore throat, subjective fever, and abnormal bruising.
An evaluation begins with a focused history and physical examination, CBC count with platelet trend, and examination of the peripheral smear.
Oral copper supplements are not recommended unless extensive metabolic testing shows a true copper deficiency.
Greater awareness and enhancing communication between patients and primary care providers can help lower the risk of suicide among US veterans.
A 69-year-old man with no prior medical history presents over the course of several months with new-onset nonspecific joint pain and swelling without evidence of erosions.
Approximately 6 to 12 million head lice cases are diagnosed in the United States per year, primarily affecting elementary school children.
Consensus regarding mammography screening varies, and conflicting guidelines from medical organizations can cause confusion for patients and providers.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, valvular heart disease, and dilated cardiomyopathy are among the most common causes.
Commercially prepared kefir is considered to be safe, mainly as a result of the pasteurization process that is required for dairy products.
A 55-year-old man with a history of hypertension and migraines is sent by his primary care provider to the emergency department for a spinal tap to rule out meningitis.
A 65-year-old Hispanic man presents to the emergency department via EMS after an unwitnessed fall from a presumed standing height.
A 64-year-old man presents to the emergency department with abdominal pain and distention, as well as constipation of 8 days' duration.
Co-prescribing naloxone and opioids in primary care is recommended for patients who have a high risk for opioid overdose.
Cod liver oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids as well as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and has high concentrations of vitamins A and D.
A 39-year-old man presents to the emergency department with 3 days of progressive bilateral leg pain, nausea, and malaise.
The disease may often go undiagnosed in adults because clinicians may be relatively inexperienced in identifying childhood illnesses in adults.
A 30-year-old woman presents with an increased heart rate, shortness of breath, and tingling in her right arm.
Boron is found in small amounts in the earth's surface and is thought to be produced by the collection of particulate matter of meteorites.
An 8-week-old infant, presents to primary care with bilateral "shaky, jerky eyes."
Primary care providers can help significantly reduce heart failure exacerbations and improve their patients' overall quality of life.
The most common causes of minor superficial burns are sunburns and minor thermal injuries.
Clinicians in all settings are in a position to identify patients with potential myopathic processes and complete an initial diagnostic work-up.
A 66-year-old woman with a history of sarcoidosis and hypertension presents to the emergency department for 4 days with right-sided abdominal pain, vomiting, fever, and mild diarrhea without blood.
An overview of porphyrias, lupus erythematosus, rosacea, drug-induced photosensitivity, polymorphous light eruption, and solar urticaria.
Coal tar products are commonly used as a treatment for psoriasis.
A 36-year-old man with type 1 diabetes presents to the emergency room with hyperglycemia and possible diabetic ketoacidosis after not taking his insulin for 3 days.
Understanding genetic testing allows providers to make the most of this resource in patient care.
Long-term use of alfalfa has an immune-stimulating effect and can worsen autoimmune conditions such as lupus and multiple sclerosis.
Developmental trauma disorder, not yet officially recognized, results from child maltreatment and has many neurobiologic consequences.
A 71-year-old man is brought to the emergency department by his family after he tripped and fell in his backyard 30 minutes before presentation.
A woman who is in generally good health presents with a visibly enlarged abdomen with left-sided dominance and increased pelvic pressure that had worsened.
Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential to mitigate the cascading events that lead to irreversible joint erosion in rheumatoid arthritis.
A 44-year-old man presents to his local urgent care clinic for chest pain radiating up into his neck that is gradually getting worse.
Canada's educational training programs are some of the most innovative in the world and use techniques that promote the skills that future clinicians need.
The condition has one fundamental pathophysiology but multiple distinct clinical presentations, including venous and neurogenic.
A 44-year-old man presents to an urgent care clinic with leg edema and shortness of breath.
Frankincense is one of a multitude of rediscovered botanical products being studied for use in a variety of diseases and conditions.
Dysfunction of the endocrine system may lead to various neurologic manifestations, including headaches.
A 63-year-old man with type 2 diabetes was admitted to the hospital to undergo right robotic partial nephrectomy.
A 4-year-old girl presents to the emergency department after 3 days of worsening sore throat with a fever.
Lithium has been the mainstay of treatment for decades, but several other classes of medication have recently been used with varying degrees of success.
Holy basil's protective mechanisms are thought to be due to the increase in antioxidant activity and alteration in gene expression.
The decreased rate of respiratory complications with betamethasone suggests antenatal steroids may improve the respiratory status in late preterm infants.
Regular proton pump inhibitor use in the elderly was associated with an increased risk of incident dementia compared with no proton pump inhibitor use, according to researchers.
Clinical officers outnumber physicians working in Kenya, and tend to work in rural areas where the need for health care is greatest.
A 30-year-old Caucasian woman reports a history of abnormal Pap test results with no other complaints.
Kratom's legal future is uncertain, pending further review from the DEA and FDA.
By initiating a conversation, primary care providers can identify specific end-of-life needs and goals, manage symptoms, and coordinate care.
Cloves, most commonly known in foods, are also excellent sources for treating pain in the oral cavity.
A patient notes concerns with vision difficulty 4 years after undergoing a laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with a duodenal switch.
In celiac disease, the surface pattern of the jejunal mucosa becomes flattened.
Foods are the preferred source of vitamin K; however, supplements are widely available in many subtypes.
Steve Trexler, an American PA with over 30 years of experience, discusses the development of a physician assistant program in Liberia.
Resumption of antithrombotic therapy after gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation
Resuming antithrombotic therapy with in patients with atrial fibrillation and a serious gastrointestinal bleed results in better overall mortality outcomes.
A recent cohort study evaluated the risk of developing Alzheimer dementia after ADT in 16,888 men with prostate cancer, 14.2% of whom were treated with ADT.
Screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria may not lead to better outcomes among pregnant women and exposes them to unnecessary antibiotics.
Spider web silk has been used for fabric, wound care, and is now the topic of some amazing research.
Allergic rhinitis is the twelfth most common diagnosis made at family physician visits.
Inulin is a collective term for a large group of complex, natural carbohydrates.
A patient came to the clinic to discuss her dizzy spells 4 years after her Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.
The use of gold therapy as an anticancer agent appears promising, as does its more common use as a DMARD.
D-mannose is a simple sugar that can be used as an effective alternative to antibiotics in a number of conditions.
The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is an obligate parasite and the most common tick-borne infection in North America and Europe.
Found in pineapple, bromelain is a well known proteolytic enzyme.
A patient with type 2 diabetes is undergoing dialysis and needs to control his HbA1c levels while fasting during Ramadan.
An awareness of the risks and red flags among adolescent patients who are being trafficked for sex is key to intervention in this vulnerable population.
A congenital condition is found in an infant with respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms.
Slippery elm may be beneficial for patients with GI complaints.
Increasing evidence has shown a link between pesticide exposure and the risk for Parkinson's disease. How real is this link on the golf course?
Between 75% and 80% of Zika virus infections are asymptomatic.
A patient comes to her yearly nutrition check-up 11 years after undergoing gastric bypass surgery with reports of loose stools with significant odor several times per day.
Osteoarthritis is one of the most common problems encountered in primary care, and conservative treatment can improve patients' quality of life.
Developing personalized nutrition goals with a registered dietitian can be effective in managing non-insulin-dependent diabetes.
Chromotherapy focuses on rebalancing patients' chakras.
A number of therapeutic options exist for patients with psoriasis, including phototherapy and systemic and biologic agents.
A patient with type 2 diabetes presents with elevated microalbumin levels and a recent history of elevated glucose due to bedtime snacking.
Although usually benign, some infantile hemangiomas have complications that are potentially fatal or physically debilitating if untreated.
Patients with COP generally have positive outcomes following a definitive diagnosis and the initiation of appropriate treatment.
Acute sinusitis is common, affecting 6% to 7% of children presenting with respiratory symptoms.
Bright light therapy may be safe and effective in children and adolescents.
Education of high risk populations and regular testing are crucial steps clinicians can take to stem the spread of hepatitis C infection.
Physician assistants in Liberia have played a key role in their country's health care during times of crisis, but they still face professional challenges.
After a fall on an outstretched hand, wrist injuries are common, but ligament tears should also be considered in adults.
A condition prone to recurrence, Crohn disease has a complicated presentation and pathophysiology, but multiple treatment options are available.
Although small studies show potential efficacy of medical marijuana in treatment of specific conditions, insufficient evidence exists for clinicians to recommend or prescribe to patients.
Glasgow Coma Scale may underestimate severity of isolated traumatic brain injury in patients aged ≥65 years
Study results suggest that GCS may be less accurate in predicting the extent of injury in elderly adults.
In patients with first unprovoked venous thromboembolism, adding CT to limited cancer screening may not lead to statistically higher rate of cancer detection
Unprovoked venous thromboembolism has been associated with the presence of occult malignancies.