Gastroenterology Information Center Archive

Probiotic Found to Be Effective for Colic in Breastfed Infants

The probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM17938 may be useful for managing colic in breastfed infants; however, its efficacy in formula-fed infants is unclear.

Probiotics Show No Benefits for Pediatric Acute Gastroenteritis

No benefits seen with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG or L. rhamnosus R0011 and L. helveticus R0052.

IBD Disability Index for Self-Report Reliable, Valid

Item-reduced version with 8 questions instead of 28 accounted for 77% of variance.

Diarrhea Remains Leading Cause of Global Mortality and Morbidity

A great deal of progress has been made in reducing the burden of diarrheal diseases, but this reduction has not been equal globally.

Avocado Implicated in Several Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome Cases

FPIES is a gastrointestinal food-associated hypersensitivity that often affects infants and toddlers and is marked by vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, and pallor.

Greater Weight Loss With Gastric Bypass Than Other Bariatric Surgery

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is associated with greater weight loss at 1, 3, and 5 years than sleeve gastrectomy or adjustable gastric banding.

Psoriasis Linked to Increased Risk for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Psoriasis appears to be significantly associated with inflammatory bowel disease.

Probiotics May Reduce Antibiotic Use for Common Acute Infections in Children

Probiotics provided to reduce the risk for common acute infections may be associated with reduced antibiotic use in infants and children.

Loss to Follow-Up Common With IBD

Loss to follow-up is common with inflammatory bowel disease, and both low C-reactive protein levels and long travel time to the hospital are predictors of follow-up loss

Unrestricted Diet Acceptable More Than One Day Before Colonoscopy

Unrestricted diets are acceptable more than one day before colonoscopy among patients using a split-dose bowel regimen.

AGA: New Opioid-Induced Constipation Management Guidelines Available

The recommendations have been published in the AGA's official journal, Gastroenterology.

Recommendations Developed to Verify Nasogastric Tube Placement in Children

Recommendations include clinician education, use of gastric pH measurement, radiographs.

Microscopic Colitis Risk Not Linked to Dietary Gluten in Women Without Celiac Disease

The consumption of dietary gluten was not associated with microscopic colitis risk in patients without celiac disease.

Ustekinumab Induces Clinical Remission After One Dose in Ulcerative Colitis Study

Study authors at the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Scientific Meeting 2018 presented late-breaking data from the induction phase of the Phase 3 UNIFI study.

Novel Blood Test for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Now Available

The test works by measuring levels of anti-cytolethal distending toxin B (CdtB) and anti-vinculin, 2 biomarkers of post-infectious IBS-D and IBS-M.

Probiotic Use May Not Protect Against Clostridium Difficile Infection

In patients taking multiple antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, or histamine receptor antagonists, the concurrent use of probiotics was associated with an increased incidence of Clostridium difficile infection

Reflux Band Now Available OTC for Reducing Laryngopharyngeal Reflux

In one study, 86% of patients clinically diagnosed with esophagopharyngeal reflux reported significant reduction in symptoms after 2 weeks of use.

Proton Pump Inhibitor Use Tied to Hip Fracture in Dialysis Patients

Correlation between PPI and hip fracture persisted for subgroups with low, medium, high PPI use.

McCune-Albright Syndrome Linked to Broad Range of Gastrointestinal Pathologies

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and numerous gastrointestinal tumors have been linked to somatic gain-of-function GNAS mutations, which can lead to McCune-Albright syndrome.

Xerava Approved for the Treatment of Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections

Eravacycline was well-tolerated in clinical trials and achieved high cure rates in patients with Gram-negative pathogens (including resistant strains).

Secretagogues Compared in Irritable Bowel Syndrome With Constipation

While several secretagogues have been recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), a lack of head-to-head trials led researchers to conduct a systematic review to compare the effectiveness of these agents in patients with IBS-C.

Computer-Aided Colonoscopy Reliably Identifies Small Polyps

Diagnosing, but leaving these polyps can save time and, likely, costs.

ASMBS Pediatric Committee Updates Guidelines on Bariatric Surgery in Teens

The American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Pediatric Committee has updated their 2012 evidence-based guidelines.

FDA to Review Gimoti for Diabetic Gastroparesis in Adult Women

The FDA has set a Prescription Drug User Fee Act target date of April 1, 2019.

Proton Pump Inhibitor Treatment and Aspirin Improve Outcomes in Barrett Esophagus

High-dose esomeprazole taken in combination with aspirin may safely and effectively improve outcomes in patients with Barrett esophagus.

Gut Microbiota Alterations May Not Be Enough to Relieve Irritable Bowel Syndrome

As fecal microbiota transplantation has been found to be effective in treating a number of gastrointestinal diseases, such as Clostridium difficile infection, researchers are now assessing whether it may also be effective for patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

Rotavirus Vaccination Linked to Decrease in Hospitalizations

A significant decline in rotavirus disease-associated hospitalization, emergency department visits, and physician office visits was demonstrated in children younger than 5 years following implementation of the rotavirus vaccine.

Updated Diagnostic Guidelines for Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Outcomes From AGREE

AGREE [A Working Group on PPI-REE) was convened to update the previously published guidelines on diagnostic criteria for eosinophilic esophagitis.

Interrelationship Between Celiac Disease, Self-Reported Wheat Sensitivity, and Functional GI Disorders

Individuals with clinically diagnosed celiac disease are at greater risk for chronic gastrointestinal symptoms, possibly fitting modified Rome criteria for irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia.

Fidaxomicin Effective for Long-Term Cure of Clostridium difficile

Fidaxomicin demonstrated the strongest evidence for being the most effective treatment in providing a long-term cure for C difficile infection.

Risk of CRC, Non-CRC Death Increases With Positive Fecal Hemoglobin Test

Positive guaiac fecal occult blood test result linked to increased risk of death from circulatory, respiratory, other diseases.

Harms Reporting Limited in Trials of Prebiotics, Probiotics, Synbiotics

No harms-related data reported for 28% of trials; safety results not reported for 37%.

FDA: Illnesses Tied to Fresh Crab Meat Imported From Venezuela

Illnesses appear to be caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus bacteria.

Is New Surveillance Monitoring Required for Enterococcal Oxazolidinone Resistance?

A study was conducted to evaluate the oxazolidinone resistance mechanisms of enterococci bacteria.

Budesonide ER for Ulcerative Colitis Safe Regardless of Gender, Age

The budesonide extended-release formulation was found to be safe and well tolerated for the remission of ulcerative colitis, regardless of age or gender.

Rifaximin May Improve Abdominal Pain Symptoms in IBS-D

A 2-week course of treatment with rifaximin for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome was found to improve abdominal pain symptoms.

CDC Issues Update for Resistant Shigella Infections

The CDC has identified an increasing number of Shigella isolates that test within the susceptible range for the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin.

C difficile Risk Higher With Stoma Reversal vs Colectomy

Findings based on examination of 30-day postoperative period in large cohort

Gastroesophageal Reflux in Preterm Infants: Diagnosis and Management

The American Academy of Pediatrics releases a new clinical report on the diagnosis and treatment of clinically significant gastroesophageal reflux.

Higher Vitamin D Levels Tied to Lower Risk of Colorectal Cancer

In women, risk declines as levels increase up to 100 nmol/L, but association in men not significant

Microbiota in Breastfed Infants May Help Prevent Overweight

Elevated risk of overweight for formula-fed infants attenuated with adjustment for gut microbiota

ACS Updates Colorectal Cancer Screening to Start at Age 45

Average-risk adults aged 45 should undergo high-sensitivity stool-based test, structural exam

Obesity Treatment Education, Training Needed in PA Programs

Recognizing the obesity epidemic and educating physician assistants on the implications of this condition and how they should be caring for obese patients should be prioritized, according to the study authors.

Higher CRC Risk With Advanced Adenoma Found on Colonoscopy

Risk not increased for non-advanced adenoma found on colonoscopy following flex sigmoidoscopy

Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Cuts CRC Incidence, Mortality in Men

Absolute risks for colorectal cancer, CRC death not reduced for screening group vs controls in women

Opiate Use Linked to Early Mortality in IBD Patients

Heavy use in Crohn's, heavy or moderate use in ulcerative colitis tied to increased risk of death

Metachronous gastric cancer risk reduced with H pylori treatment

Antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori in patients who underwent endoscopic resection of early-stage gastric cancer or high-grade adenoma is associated with a reduced rate of metachronous gastric cancer.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Risk Associated with DPP-4 Inhibitor Use

Patients with type 2 diabetes have a greater risk for developing inflammatory bowel disease when using dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors.

Hip fracture risks increase with short-term PPI use in patients with Alzheimer's disease

Short-term proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are linked to an elevated risk for hip fracture among patients with Alzheimer's disease. No link is seem among patients taking long-term or cumulative PPIs.

Appendicitis risk greater one week after colonoscopy

Investigators found more frequent appendicitis, appendectomy codes in the first week following colonoscopy than the next 51 weeks.

CDC investigating E. coli outbreak in 13 states

An outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 have been reported in 13 states in the US as well as Canada.

Oral capsule of fecal transplant may be effective for C difficile infection

Oral capsule FMT and colonoscopy delivery showed similar patient outcomes, low rate differences, and high success rates.

FODMAP vs GDA diets for patients with irritable bowel syndrome

Patients with irritable bowel syndrome found FODMAP more beneficial than general dietary advice

Short-term probiotics linked to lower fat percentage in overweight, obese patients

The meta-analysis showed that short-term probiotic supplementation reduced body weight, BMI, and fat percentage, but the effect sizes were small.

Dabigatran, rivaroxaban associated with increased risk of major gastrointestinal bleeding

The data suggest possible variability across NOACs regarding gastrointestinal bleeding risk, with an increased risk associated with rivaroxaban and dabigatran.

Gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma patients benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy

The researchers found that patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma were younger, more likely to have advanced disease, and had shorter postoperative inpatient stays.

Physical and psychological coping skills associated with symptom severity in IBS

The association is partially mediated by levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms.

Colonoscopy rates improve from patient navigators, provider reminders

Patient-level interventions include changes to invitation, giving results or follow-up appointments, and patient navigators, and provider-level interventions include reminders or performance data.

Gastric bypass surgery effective for weight loss, diabetes prevention for 12 years

The 12-year results show that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass offered long-term durability of weight loss and was associated with fewer obesity-related coexisting conditions compared with those who did not have the surgery.

Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease increases cancer risk in adulthood

Patients with childhood-onset IBD have an increased risk of cancer, especially gastrointestinal cancers, lymphoid neoplasms, and skin cancer,

Colon cleansing regimens in inflammatory bowel disease: a review

A PEG low-volume regimen is similar to a PEG high-volume regimen for colon cleansing in patients with IBS.

GERD may be associated with long-term risk of pneumonia

Incidence of pneumonia was higher among patients with GERD compared with matched controls.

Clinical pathway beneficial for pediatric acute gastroenteritis

Clinical pathway to improve care of acute gastroenteritis patients is associated with a sustained reduction in IV fluid use and length of stay in the pediatric emergency department.

Asthma associated with later development of inflammatory bowel disease

Asthma was associated with Crohn's disease and with early- and late-onset ulcerative colitis.

Colorectal cancer mortality rates increasing in younger white adults

Researchers analyzed colorectal cancer mortality rates among individuals between 20 and 54 years of age from 1970 through 2014.

Adding oats to a gluten-free diet may not affect patients with celiac disease

The addition of oats to a gluten-free diet did not affect symptoms, histology, immunity, or serologic features in patients with celiac disease.

Inflammatory bowel disease less likely in children and teens from rural areas

Environmental risk factors that predispose people to inflammatory bowel disease may have a stronger effect in children than adults.

Financial incentive linked to increased colonoscopy rates

Researchers found that a cash incentive of $100 was associated with increased colorectal screening rates in eligible adults.

Adverse events common in hospitalized patients taking antibiotics

Many adverse events could be avoidable with more judicious use of antibiotics.

Antibody screenings could detect celiac disease in asymptomatic children

Serum TG2A screening has a positive predictive value of 61% to detect celiac disease.

Increased adenoma detection rate associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer and death

An increased ADR is associated with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.63 for interval colorectal cancer and 0.50 for cancer death.

Immune profile differs during symptom flare for patients with irritable bowel syndrome

Interferon- concentrations and THELPER cells are significantly reduced during symptom flares.

Proton pump inhibitor use associated with excess risk of death

Risk of death is increased among those without gastrointestinal conditions and with prolonged use.

Risk-scoring model predicts advanced colorectal neoplasia in younger adults

The score could help predict advanced colorectal neoplasia in adults younger than 50 years of age.

Endoscopy's role in primary sclerosing cholangitis: a clinical guideline

The guideline is intended to be an educational device to provide information that may assist endoscopists in providing care to patients.

Breast milk bacteria seed development of infant gut microbiome

Findings show that bacteria from mothers' breast milk and areolar skin are transferred to their infants' guts.

FDA approves medical device to treat esophageal atresia

The new device uses magnetic catheters to draw the upper and lower esophagus together.

Elemental diet restores esophageal mucosal integrity in eosinophilic esophagitis

However, duodenal integrity appears to not be affected in eosinophilic esophagitis.

Gluten consumption affects symptom onset in functional dyspepsia

Gluten-rich food may lead to symptom onset, specifically early satiety, in patients with functional dyspepsia.

Zinc effective in children with presymptomatic Wilson disease

Treatment was effective in patients under 6 years who received 50 mg/day of zinc as an initial dose.

Side effects may affect medication nonadherence in patients with chronic disease

Almost half of participants reported that they never received information regarding the side effects of their medication from their prescriber.

Long-term gluten consumption not linked to coronary heart disease

Avoiding gluten may result in reduced consumption of beneficial whole grains that could affect cardiovascular risk.

Colonoscopy timing after positive fecal test linked to colorectal cancer risk

A follow-up colonoscopy more than 10 months after a positive FIT result is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer and more advanced disease at the time of diagnosis.

Long-term antibiotic use associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma

Increasing duration of antibiotic use at ages 20 to 39 and 40 to 59 is significantly associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma.

Apixaban linked to lower risk of gastrointestinal bleeding

Apixaban is associated with a lower risk of gastrointestinal bleeding than rivaroxaban or dabigatran.

Celiac disease linked to diagnosis of anorexia nervosa

Celiac disease is associated with anorexia nervosa before and after a diagnosis of celiac disease.

FDA approves first direct-to-consumer genetic health risk test

The test will provide information on an individual's genetic predisposition to 10 diseases or conditions.

Screening for celiac disease: A USPSTF recommendation statement

The USPSTF evaluated the benefits and harms of screening vs not screening, targeted vs universal screening, and treatment for celiac disease.

Gastric acid suppressants may increase risk of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection

A meta-analysis suggests that patients who take gastric acid suppressants may have a higher risk for recurrent CDI.

Predicting high healthcare costs in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

Researchers identified 5 factors that identify patients with IBD at high risk for hospitalization, emergency department visits, and high treatment charges in the next year.

Colorectal cancer characteristics different, outcomes worse among octogenarians

Octogenarians with colorectal cancer have several differences in clinical and tumor characteristics, compared with younger patients with the disease.

Budesonide oral suspension may be effective for eosinophilic esophagitis

Budesonide oral suspension treatment improved symptomatic, endoscopic, and histologic parameters in eosinophilic esophagitis.

Irritable bowel syndrome medication linked to pancreatitis in certain patients

The FDA has received 120 reports of serious cases of pancreatitis or death after the approval of Viberzi in May 2015.

Additional weight may affect risk of gastrointestinal cancers

Excess weight could influence the risk of of gastrointestinal cancers by altering insulin levels and promoting inflammation.

FODMAP diet effective for irritable bowel syndrome

Implementation of the FODMAP diet is an effective strategy to manage symptoms of IBS, including bloating and abdominal pain.

Gluten challenge not effective for confirming non-celiac gluten sensitivity

Thirty-eight of 231 NCGS patients showed gluten-specific symptoms when completing the placebo-controlled gluten challenge.

Gluten-free diet may increase risk of type 2 diabetes

Individuals who consume the least amount of gluten are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes.

Evaluating abnormal liver chemistries: a clinical guideline

The American College of Gastroenterology has released recommendations of preferred approaches for diagnosing and evaluating patients with abnormal liver test results.

Proton pump inhibitor use may decrease healthcare visits in GERD patients

Among GERD patients, the mean annual ARI episode dropped from 4.39 during the year before PPI treatment to 3.89 after treatment with a PPI.

FDA approves Trulance for chronic idiopathic constipation treatment

Trulance has been approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in adults.

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