Use the acronyms PASS and PAID to remember important murmurs:

Pulmonic and Aortic Stenosis yield Systolic murmurs (PASS); and Pulmonic and Aortic Insufficiency yield Diastolic murmurs (PAID). — WANDA SANTOS, PA, Paris, Ill. (198-3)



These are letters from practitioners around the country who want to share their clinical problems and successes, observations and pearls with their colleagues. We invite you to participate. If you have a clinical pearl, submit it here.