To reduce the discomfort or pain of vaccinations, apply firm, but comfortable, pressure on the intended site for 30 seconds, or have the patient or parent do so.

Blanching of the fingertip used in applying pressure is a reliable sign of adequate pressure being applied. The steady firm pressure causes relative analgesia/anesthesia at the site for several seconds after the pressure is released, has no side effects, and incurs no cost. — Thomas Urschel, PA-C, Leroy, N.Y. (197-3)