Which non-narcotic analgesics are best for musculoskeletal pain (muscle strain, sprain, and fracture) and post-operatively?—JACLYN LEITNER, PA-C, Glen Rock, N.J. (210-7)

Non-opioid (non-narcotic) agents such as aspirin and acetaminophen are recognized as 2 of the most widely used analgesics and are effective for mild to moderate headache and pain of musculoskeletal origin. For acute adult musculoskeletal pain, the first-line choice can be paracetamol (acetaminophen) (500 mg to 1,000 mg) every 4 to 6 hours in patients with no hepatic impairment. A second-line agent can be conventional, as well as Cox-2 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as celecoxib or diclofenac, and using the lowest effective dose for the shortest course.—ABIMBOLA FARINDE, PhD, PharmD (210-7)

Abimbola Farinde, PhD, PharmD, is a professor at Columbia Southern University in Orange Beach, Ala.

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  1. Analgesics in acute musculoskeletal pain. New South Wales, Australia: National Prescribing Service Limited. Published 2003. Accessed March 2016.

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