Dermatology

Dermatology

Erythroderma (Exfoliative dermatitis)

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? Erythroderma is defined as inflammation of at least 90% of the total skin surface, characterized by generalized erythema with a highly variable degree of scaling or exfoliation. It is an important dermatological emergency as the systemic effects are potentially fatal. What you should be alert for in the history…

Erythrasma

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? Characteristic findings on physical examination Erythrasma is a superficial cutaneous infection characterized by red-brown, wrinkling, possibly scaling, possibly pruritic, well demarcated plaques in flexural areas, including the interdigital (most common form), axillary, inguinal, intergluteal, and submammary folds. Lesions often begin as pink or red (Figure 1) and over time…

Erythrokeratolysis heimalis (keratolytic winter erythema, Oudtshoorn disease)

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? Characteristic findings on physical examination Erythrokeratolysis hiemalis (EH) is a very rare epidermal disorder with recurrent, intermittent peeling at palms and soles. sometimes spreading to the interdigital and dorsal part of the hands. Annular erythema on limbs, buttocks, trunk and face has been described. Itching, hyperhidrosis and pustulation are…

Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (Leprosy)

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is an immune-mediated complication of leprosy, characterized by the presence of multiple inflammatory cutaneous nodules and systemic symptoms such as fever, malaise, arthritis, iritis, neuritis and lymphadenitis. Histopathologic examination demonstrates an inflammatory infiltrate of neutrophils with vasculitis and/or panniculitis, deposition of immune complexes and complement…

Erythema nodosum

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? Erythema nodosum (EN) is the most common form of panniculitis. EN is generally viewed as a cutaneous reactive process that can be seen as an isolated, idiopathic condition (sometimes referred to as primary EN), or more often as a skin sign of another disease (secondary EN). The list of…

Erythema multiforme

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute, immune-mediated, self-limited mucocutaneous condition characterized by distinctive target lesions with concentric color variations. Erythema multiforme minor describes EM without mucosal involvement; erythema multiforme major refers to EM with mucosal disease. It should be noted that EM with mucous membrane involvement (EM major) and…

Erythema Infectiousum (Fifth Disease, Slapped Cheek Syndrome)

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? What you should be alert for in the history Characteristic findings on physical examination The diagnosis of erythema infectiousum (EI) is a clinical diagnosis that can be made with a careful history and physical examination. The classic course of illness involves three distinct stages: A mild prodromal illness characterized…

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