Level 2: Mid-level evidence

Postoperative catheterization for more than two days is associated with an increased risk of in-hospital UTI and 30-day mortality (P <.05), based on a retrospective cohort study of 35,904 patients who had surgery at acute-care hospitals in the United States (Arch Surg. 2008;143:551-557). Eighty-six percent of patients had postoperative indwelling catheters; 50% had catheters for more than two days.