Is there any evidence of an association between lymphoma or lymphosarcoma (Hodgkin’s disease) and metabolic syndrome?
—Roberto Renovales, MD, San Juan, P.R.

The term “metabolic syndrome” generally refers to the concomitant occurrence of metabolic risk factors for both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease; namely, abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. As defined by the 2001 National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel [ATP] III, metabolic syndrome refers to any combination of three of the following five characteristics: (1) waist circumference in men >102 cm (40 in) and in women >88 cm (35 in), (2) serum triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL (1.7 mmol/L), (3) serum HDL <40 mg/dL (1 mmol/L) in men and <50 mg/dL (1.3 mmol/L) in women, (4) BP ≥130/85 mm Hg, (5) fasting plasma glucose ≥110 mg/dL (6.1 mmol/L) (JAMA. 2001; 285:2486-2497).

A number of risk factors for metabolic syndrome were identified in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including older age, race, increased body weight, postmenopausal status, smoking, low household income, high-carbohydrate diet, absence of alcohol consumption, and physical inactivity (JAMA. 2002;287:356-359). Other associations include fatty liver disease, chronic kidney disease with microalbuminuria, polycystic ovary syndrome, and sleep-disordered breathing, including obstructive sleep apnea. Despite a fairly extensive search, I was unable to find any association between metabolic syndrome and lymphoma or Hodgkin’s disease.
—Daniel G. Tobin, MD (116-16)

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