In the United States, about 30% of women of reproductive age are obese and over 50% of obese women gain more weight during pregnancy than recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM).
Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) increases the risk of macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g), large for gestational age (birth weight >90th percentile), higher child BMI z-scores, and increased body fat and elevated systolic blood pressure in children at age 3 years . Excessive GWG is also associated with both short- and long-term maternal weight retention.
How to reduce weight gain among obese pregnant women has been unclear. In nonpregnant adults, the most effective weight loss and weight maintenance interventions have employed dietary counseling and weekly participant contact.
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