HealthDay News — For African women seeking effective contraception, there is no significant difference in HIV incidence with use of intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-IM), a copper intrauterine device (IUD), and a levonorgestrel (LNG) implant, according to a study published online June 13 in The Lancet.

Jared M. Baeten, MD, from the University of Washington in Seattle, and colleagues conducted a randomized multicenter trial involving HIV-seronegative women aged 16 to 35 years who were seeking effective contraception. The modified intention-to-treat population included 7715 participants who were randomly assigned to receive an injection of 150 mg/mL DMPA-IM every 3 months (2556 women), a copper IUD (2571 women), or an LNG implant (2,588 women).

The researchers identified 397 HIV infections (incidence, 3.81 per 100 woman-years): 143 (4.19 per 100 woman-years), 138 (3.94 per 100 woman-years), and 116 (3.31 per 100 woman-years) in the DMPA-IM, IUD, and LNG implant groups, respectively. The hazard ratios for HIV acquisition were 1.04 for DMPA-IM vs IUD; 1.23 for DMPA-IM vs LNG implant; and 1.18 for IUD vs LNG implant.

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“This randomized trial did not find a substantial difference in HIV risk among the methods evaluated, and all methods were safe and highly effective,” the authors write. “These results underscore the importance of continued and increased access to these three contraceptive methods.”

One author disclosed financial ties to the pharmaceutical industry.

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