HealthDay News — Kidney stones are associated with an increased risk for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), specifically papillary RCC, and upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), according to a study published online Dec. 19 in the British Journal of Cancer.

Jeroen A.A. van de Pol, from Maastricht University in the Netherlands, and colleagues examined the correlation between kidney stones and RCC and UTUC among 120,852 participants aged 55 to 69 years. A case-cohort analysis was conducted among 4352 subcohort members, 544 RCC cases, and 140 UTUC cases after 20.3 years of follow-up.

The researchers found that compared with no kidney stones, kidney stones correlated with increased RCC risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 1.84). The risk for papillary RCC was increased with kidney stones (HR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.55 to 6.11), but the risk for clear-cell RCC was not (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.65). Participants with kidney stones had an increased risk for UTUC (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.86). There was no heterogeneity of correlations for UTUC in the ureter and renal pelvis. Compared with later diagnosis, early kidney stone diagnosis (≤40 years) correlated with increased RCC and UTUC risk.

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“In light of the findings of this study, more research is needed to unravel the mechanisms behind the relation of kidney stones and RCC and UTUC,” the authors write.

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