HealthDay News — For patients with type 2 diabetes, high dietary sodium intake is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), according to a study published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

“Many guidelines for diabetes care in many countries recommend a reduction in dietary sodium intake; however, detailed evidence regarding the relationship between dietary sodium intake and the incidence of diabetes complications in patients with type 2 diabetes is sparse,” explained Chika Horiakwa, RD, of the University of Niigata in Japan, and colleagues.

To study the correlation between dietary sodium intake and incidence of complications of diabetes, the investigators examined 1,588 patients aged 40 to 70 years with HbA1c ≥6.5% that responded to a dietary survey.

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For patients in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of sodium intake compared with the first quartile, the hazard ratios for CVD were 1.70 (95% CI: 0.98-2.94), 1.47 (95% CI: 0.82-2.62), and 2.07 (95% CI: 1.21-3.90), respectively, after adjustments for confounders (P<0.01).

Compared with patients with HbA1c <9.0%, for patients who had HbA1c ≥9.0%, the hazard ratio for CVD was dramatically elevated in patients in the top versus the bottom quartile of sodium intake (9.91 [95% CI: 2.66-36.87) versus 1.16 [95% CI: 0.56-2.39]; interaction, P<0.01).

“Findings suggested that high dietary sodium intake is associated with elevated incidence of CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes and that there is a synergistic effect between HbA1c values and dietary sodium intake for the development of CVD,” concluded the researchers.


  1. Horiakwa C et al. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2014; doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-4315