Infectious Disease News Archive

Flu Vaccination Safe for Hospitalized Patients

With vaccination, risks reduced for readmission, outpatient visits, fever, clinical evaluations for infection.

Resistance to Clarithromycin, Metronidazole Affects H pylori Eradication

Minimum inhibitory concentration levels of resistance to either clarithromycin or metronidazole may play a role in Helicobacter pylori therapy outcome.

Influenza Seroconversion Risk Factors in Adults Hospitalized for Pneumonia

Adults hospitalized for pneumonia who received an influenza vaccination during their stay were less likely to seroconvert if they had diabetes, bacterial detection, baseline seropositive titers for influenza B, or influenza vaccination in the previous season.

USPSTF Affirms Guidance for Hep B Screening at First Prenatal Visit

Evidence convincing that universal prenatal screening reduces perinatal transmission of HBV.

Prescription Opioids Up Pneumonia Risk in Patients With, Without HIV

Risk greatest with higher-dose opioids and opioids with immunosuppressive properties.

Flu Vaccine Cuts Flu-Related Hospitalization in COPD Patients

Flu-positive patients have higher crude mortality and critical illness vs flu-negative patients.

Recent Nasal Preps Less Effective Than Vaccine for Pediatric Influenza

The quadrivalent LAIV4 is less effective than IIV against influenza A/H1N1pdm09 in all pediatric age groups.

In-Hospital Morbidity, Mortality Up With Flu in Heart Failure

Higher incidence seen for in-hospital mortality, acute respiratory failure, acute kidney injury.

Nurse-Led Program in Primary Care Can Improve Detection of Liver Disease

More incident cases identified in intervention arm with nurse-led primary care-based liver clinics.

Voriconazole-Resistant Invasive Aspergillosis Associated With Higher Mortality

Patients with voriconazole-resistant invasive aspergillosis have a higher mortality rate compared with patients with voriconazole-susceptible infection.

Zoliflodacin: Promising New Treatment for Urogenital Gonorrhea

Zoliflodacin was effective in treating gonococcal urogenital and rectal infections, but less effective in the treatment of pharyngeal gonorrhea.

Stethoscopes in ICU Show High Levels of Bacterial Contamination

Highest levels of contamination on practitioner stethoscopes, those in patient rooms.

Genotype G Linked With Liver Fibrosis in Hepatitis B-HIV Coinfection

Investigators sought to determine the association between liver fibrosis and hepatitis B virus genotype G in patients with comorbid HIV and HBV.

Recalled Kotex Tampons Can Unravel Inside Body

Small number of reports include infections, vaginal irritation, localized vaginal injury.

Flu Vaccine Linked to Reduced Risk for Death in Heart Failure

After adjustment for confounders, vaccine linked to lower all-cause, cardiovascular death.

Updated Recommendations, Hepatitis A Vaccine Postexposure Prophylaxis and Travel

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Hepatitis Vaccines Work Group has updated recommendations for hepatitis A vaccination for PEP and PrEP.

New Four-Drug Regimen Effective in Patients With HCV Who Inject Drugs

Those with HCV genotype 1 with recent injection drug use and/or current opioid substitution therapy, paritaprevir/ritonavir, ombitasvir, and dasabuvir with/without ribavirin is effective.

Survival Similar With Donor Hearts From Hepatitis C+ Donors

Second study shows no significant difference in patients' survival based on donor BMI.

Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir Improve Extrahepatic Manifestations in Hepatitis C

Patients with chronic HCV undergoing short-term glecaprevir and pibrentasvir treatment show improved cardiovascular and metabolic extrahepatic manifestations.

NYC Sexual Health Clinics See Rise in Anorectal Lymphogranuloma Venereum

A rise in anorectal lymphogranuloma venereum, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis invasive serovars, observed from 2012-2015 in NYC sexual health clinics.

Targeted HCV Testing Misses High Number of Cases in Prisons

Findings based on birth cohort, risk-based testing vs opt-out testing in prison system.

Gepotidacin Shows Potential in Treating Resistant Neisseria Gonorrhoeae

Gepotidacin, a novel triazaacenaphthelene bacterial type II topoisomerase inhibitor shows potential in treating resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Novel NASH Treatment Gets FDA's Fast Track Designation

The Company has completed a first in human study in healthy volunteers; a Phase 2 trial in adults with NASH is due to begin soon in the US.

FDA: Another E. coli Outbreak Linked to Romaine Lettuce

So far, 32 people across 11 states have become sick with E. coli after eating romaine lettuce.

Keytruda Gets FDA Approval for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

The approval was based on data from the KEYNOTE-224 study, a single-arm trial in patients with HCC who had disease progression on or after sorafenib or were intolerant to sorafenib; had measurable disease; and Child-Pugh class A liver impairment.

Suboptimal Rates of Adherence to Chronic HBV Treatment Guidelines Identified

Adherence to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases criteria for evaluation and treatment of chronic HBV infection was found to be poor in all practice settings assessed.

High Prevalence of Cirrhosis in Adults With Chronic HBV at a Safety-Net Hospital

Investigators aimed to determine rates and predictors of cirrhosis and cirrhosis-related complications in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection.

New Antibiotic Shows Promise as Potential Treatment for Uncomplicated Gonorrhea

Unlike other antibiotics used to treat gonorrhea, zoliflodacin, a spiropyrimidinetrione antimicrobial agent, works by inhibiting DNA biosynthesis by arresting the cleaved covalent gyrase complex, thereby impeding bacterial growth.

Showerhead Mycobacteria Abundant in Regional 'Hot Spots'

These areas often overlap with regions of prevalent nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease.

CDC Director Says Congo Ebola Outbreak May Be Uncontainable

Outbreak in North Kivu province is in its fourth month, and there have been nearly 300 cases.

Influenza Vaccines May Protect Against Lab-Confirmed Influenza-Linked Hospitalization During Pregnancy

For women who are pregnant, influenza vaccines may moderately protect against laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalization.

Over 2 Million People Living With HCV From 2013 to 2016

Overall, 1.7 and 1.0% of all US adults HCV antibody-positive and HCV RNA-positive.

Direct-Acting Agents Help to Eliminate Hepatitis C in Liver Transplant Recipients

The introduction of DAAs has caused a significant reduction in the percentage of liver transplant recipients for HCV who are viremic after surgery.

ACS: Accepting Liver From Older Donor Better Than Waiting

Candidates who accept organ from older donor have lower mortality within and beyond 90 days

New CHEST Guideline for Acute Cough Suspicious of Pneumonia or Influenza

The CHEST Expert Cough Panel agreed on cough, dyspnea, pleural pain, sweating, shivers, aches, temperature of ≥38°C, tachypnea, and new and localizing chest examination signs as clinical symptoms as criteria suggestive of pneumonia in outpatient adults.

First-in-Class Antiviral Approved for the Treatment of Influenza

"This is the first new antiviral flu treatment with a novel mechanism of action approved by the FDA in nearly 20 years," said FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, MD.

Prior-Season Vaccination Not Associated With Flu Shot Effectiveness

Prior-season vaccination is not associated with reduced vaccine effectiveness among children aged 2 to 17 years.

Influenza Vaccination Rates Vary as Clinic Day Progress

Research results indicated vaccination rates declined as clinic day progressed and that active choice intervention was linked with increased vaccinations.

Infant HIV Infection Increases the Risk for Congenital CMV Infection

HIV-exposed infants have high rates of congenital cCMV infection, and in utero HIV infection seems to be a major risk factor for cCMV.

Hispanics With HIV Face Higher Risk for HPV-Related Cancer

HIV-infected Hispanics have an increased risk for human papillomavirus-related cancers than Hispanics in the general population.

Advance Care Planning Lowers Symptoms in Teens With HIV

Family-centered pediatric advance care planning is associated with a lower likelihood of symptoms and suffering for adolescents with HIV.

2014 to 2016 Saw 470% Increase in HIV PrEP Use in US

Seven percent of those with indications for PrEP were prescribed PrEP, including 2.1% of women.

One-Time, Universal Screening for Hepatitis C Is Cost-Effective

Universal 1-time screening for chronic HCV infection is cost-effective compared with no screening or with birth cohort-based screening alone.

Updated HCV Treatment Guidelines for 2018 Published by AASLD-IDSA

The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) released updates guidelines for treating hepatitis C infection.

Web-Based Lifestyle Program Beneficial for Liver Disease Patients

Similar weight, liver enzyme improvements seen with group- and web-based programs for NAFLD patients.

Population Density, Structure Impact Length of Flu Season

Larger cities with higher base transmission potentials have more diffuse influenza epidemics.

Modest Alcohol Consumption May Reduce Mortality in NAFLD

But drinking 1.5 drinks/day linked to increased mortality after adjustment for multiple confounders.

Rituximab Linked to HBV Reactivation in Patients With Prior Functional Cure

The study authors searched MEDLINE from inception through July 2018 to obtain relevant cohort studies and randomized trials assessing HBVr incidence secondary to pharmaceutical agents.

Need for Adequate Screening for Infants With HCV Infected Mothers During Pregnancy

One of the goals of the US Department of Health and Human Services National Viral Hepatitis Action Plan is to eliminate mother-to-infant transmission of HCV infection.

Sofosbuvir-Based Regimens Safe, Effective for Chronic Hepatitis C in the Community

Investigators examined treatment response of sofosbuvir-based DAA in patients with chronic hepatitis C with compensated liver cirrhosis in a community care setting.

Variations in Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Healthcare Employees Reported

Wide variations in influenza vaccine coverage have been noted across healthcare personnel based on occupation and worksite.

Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir Is Safe, Efficacious for HCV/HIV-1 Coinfection

Analysis of 2 phase 3 clinical trials evaluating the safety/efficacy of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir in people with HCV coinfected with HIV-1 found an overall sustained virologic response of 98% at week 12 of treatment in those with or without cirrhosis.

Active Choice Intervention Effective in Increasing Influenza Vaccination Rates at Primary Care Practices

Influenza vaccination rates decline as the clinic day progresses.

A Single Combination Tablet Suppresses HIV Load Through 48 Weeks

A combination single tablet once-a-day regimen of doravirine/lamivudine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate demonstrated non-inferiority and no significant adverse events when compared with continuation of established antiretroviral therapy in adults infected with HIV-1.

First Human Case of Rat Strain of Hepatitis E Found

The first human case of a strain of hepatitis E previously found only in rats was diagnosed in a Hong Kong man who received a liver transplant in May 2017.

Hospital Privacy Curtains Become Increasingly Contaminated

Ten to 14 days after being hung, curtains show increased MRSA positivity.

Barriers Found in PCP Knowledge of Surveillance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Barriers found among PCPs in surveillance of HCC indicate the need for clinical interventions, including provider education.

80,000 Americans Died From Influenza Over Last Year

2017 to 2018 flu strains hit the very young and elderly especially hard; poor vaccine/strain match-up.

CDC: Congenital Syphilis More Than Doubled Since 2013

Congenital syphilis up from 362 cases in 2013 to 918 in 2017, with 46.17% increase since 2016.

HIV Infection Diagnoses on the Rise in Young Homosexual Men

Number of HIV diagnoses in those aged 13 to 29 4x higher than those aged 50 years.

Ground Beef Recalled After E Coli Outbreak

Beef was produced and packaged at Cargill Meat Solutions in Fort Morgan, Colo.

Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease Score Underestimates Mortality

The PELD score underestimates the actual probability of 90-day pretransplant mortality for children undergoing a primary liver transplant.

Patrons of 'Vampire Facial' Spa May Have Been Exposed to HIV

Inspection at the VIP Spa in Albuquerque detected practices that might spread HIV or hepatitis B and C.

Penicillin Allergies: Commonly Reported but Rarely Accurate

As infections from drug-resistant microbes continue to rise, the development of new antibiotics has declined since the golden age of antibiotic discovery in the mid-20th century.

HCV DAA Curative Therapy Associated With Liver Fibrosis Regression

Curing HCV infection with direct-acting antiretrovirals is associated with regression of liver fibrosis for most patients.

Final CDC Update on Salmonella Linked to Backyard Poultry

Live chicks, ducklings obtained from relatives, feed supply stores, websites, and hatcheries.

CDC: Some Sexual Minorities Have Higher Sexual Risk Behaviors

Bisexual females, 'not sure' males have higher prevalence of many sexual risk behaviors.

Factors Associated With Faster Time to Hepatitis C Treatment

The researchers found a significant difference in mean time to direct-acting antiviral agent treatment among participants with public insurance payers compared with private insurance payers.

HCV Neuropsychiatric Symptoms Likely Linked to Virus' Effects on Brain Function

The neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with HCV infection are likely caused by the body's response to the virus' effects on brain function.

HBV Antibody Persistence in Adolescents Vaccinated With DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib as Infants

A robust anamnestic response was mounted in most adolescents when challenged with a dose of monovalent HBV vaccine.

AAP Updates Recommendations for Pediatric Flu Vaccination

All children age 6 months and older, including teens, advised to undergo annual immunization.

Toward Integrated Care for Hepatitis C Infection and Addiction

There is an opportunity to improve HCV treatment rates for people who inject drugs by integrating DAA therapy into current models of community-based addiction.

Real-World Efficacy of DAAs in African Americans With Chronic HCV GT-1 Infection

Direct-acting antivirals are safe and effective in African-American patients with chronic HCV.

Immune Cells' Gene Expression May Predict Flu Susceptibility

Expression of KLRD1 by natural killer cells before infection associated with influenza severity.

CDC: Increase in Rate of STDs for Fourth Consecutive Year in US

Nearly 2.3 million total cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis diagnosed in the United States in 2017.

Drinking Water Turned Off in All Detroit's Public Schools

Decision made 'out of an abundance of caution and concern for the safety of students and employees'.

China Withholding H7N9 Bird Flu Virus Samples From US

Specimens of the rapidly evolving virus are needed to develop vaccines and treatments.

FDA Approves Two New Oral Treatments for HIV-1 Infection

Delstrigo is approved as a complete regimen whereas Pifeltro is to be administered in combination with other antiretrovirals.

CDC: Salmonella Outbreak in 4 States Linked to Kosher Chicken

To date, 8 people have been hospitalized and 1 patient has died.

Risk of Thyroid Dysfunction Not Associated With HIV Status

Compared with uninfected individuals, people with HIV controlled with combination antiretroviral therapy are not at increased risk of developing thyroid dysfunction.

Patient Navigation Associated With Positive Outcomes in HIV

Patient navigation may be considered an effective strategy to enhance engagement and continuation in disease treatment among people with HIV.

CDC: Updated Influenza Vaccination Recommendations for 2018-2019

In general, routine annual vaccination is recommended for all patients ≥6 months of age who have no contraindications.

1997 to 2015 Saw Increase in HIV Viral Suppression Rates

Lower odds of having detectable viral load for older adults and those using ISTI-based regimen.

Majority of Patients With Liver Metastases From Colorectal Cancer Eligible for Laparoscopy

In high-volume centers, patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer may often be eligible for minimally invasive liver surgery via laparoscopy, thereby reducing potential morbidity risks associated with open surgery.

Ibalizumab Active in Multidrug Resistant HIV-1 Infection

Lower degree of susceptibility to ibalizumab for 9 of 10 patients with virology failure, rebound.

International Antiviral Society-USA Updates Recommendations for HIV Treatment and Prevention

The International Antiviral Society-USA Panel has updated its recommendations for the management and prevention of HIV infection, to reflect the most current data on new treatment regimens and strategies.

Intervention Cuts Risk for HIV in Young Transgender Women

Intervention group had greater reduction in condomless sex acts vs standard of care group.

Antibiotics Often Unnecessary for Sacral Pressure Ulcers Complicated by Osteomyelitis

A systematic literature review, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, found no evidence supporting a benefit to antibacterial therapy for osteomyelitis in patients with stage IV sacral pressure ulcers.

Low Rates of Syphilis Testing in High-Risk Men Who Are HIV Positive

Close to one-third of sexually active HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) have not received syphilis screening in the past 12 months.

Vaccinations Begin in Congo Ebola Outbreak

First to be vaccinated will be health workers, contacts of confirmed Ebola patients.

HIV, Syphilis Screening Low With ED-Diagnosed PID in Adolescents

Findings among teens diagnosed with pelvic inflammatory disease in the emergency department.

New Tick Species Spreading in the United States

Asian longhorned tick currently considered a greater threat to livestock than to humans.

Good Outcomes for HCV-Negative Recipients of HCV Kidneys

All 20 recipients experienced HCV cure, good quality of life, excellent renal function.

Severe Asthma Risk Increased From Aspergillus fumigatus Sensitization

Sensitization to Aspergillus fumigatus increased the risk for severe asthma.

Some Bacteria Now More Tolerant of Alcohol-Based Sanitizers

Enterococci bacteria surviving exposure for longer periods of time.

Hepatic Markers Linked to Early Predictors of Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Women

Circulating hepatic markers may predict the risk for diabetes in women.

Guidelines for ART Updated for Those With or at Risk for HIV

ART recommended for almost all HIV-infected; should be initiated as soon as possible post diagnosis.

Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Preferred for Nursing Mothers

Women receiving the inactivated influenza vaccine demonstrated superior antibody response compared with those receiving the live attenuated influenza vaccine.

Successful Screening and Referral for HIV, Hepatitis C in a Trauma Population

Investigators added hepatitis C virus and HIV screening tests to standard trauma activation laboratory orders.

Availability of Generic Antivirals for Hepatitis B Increasing

Drop in median price of WHO-prequalified generic tenofovir from 208 to 32 from 2004 to 2016

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