Neurology Information Center News

American Headache Society Releases Position Statement on Novel Preventive and Acute Migraine Treatments

The American Headache Society has issued updated guidelines on the use of novel preventive and acute treatments for migraine in adults.

Racial Differences Identified in Some Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease

African-Americans have lower mean CSF concentration of total tau, phosphorylated tau181.

AAN Issues Position Statement on Determination of Brain Death

While evidence-based guidelines exist for the determination of brain death in infants, children, and adults, Nevada is currently the only state to adopt laws that require adherence to these guidelines.

Treating Acute Migraine During Pregnancy: The Need for Guidelines

Pregnant women presenting with migraine to acute care settings were found to be treated with therapeutic agents ranging from safe and effective medications to others with unclear efficacy and potential teratogenicity.

Higher Risk for Depression, Anxiety Seen With Cerebral Palsy

Association seen in patients with cerebral palsy without accompanying intellectual disability.

Vitamin D3 Associated With Reductions in Migraine Days Among Migraineurs

Vitamin D3 may reduce migraine days in patients who experience frequent migraines.

Approved in Migraine, CGRP Antagonists Also Promising in Cluster Headache

Cluster headache and migraine are distinct primary headache disorders that are associated with substantial pain and disability.

Parkinson Disease Treatment Soon to Be Discontinued

Requip and Requip XL are non-ergot dopamine agonists indicated for the treatment of Parkinson disease.

Number of People With Dementia Rose Twofold From 1990 to 2016

Overall, 28.8 million disability-adjusted life years due to dementia; 6.4 million attributed to modifiable risks.

Incident Concussion 5.1% Per Season for Youth Football

Risk increased for youth with depression or history of concussion.

Migraine With Aura Linked to Increase in Incident A-Fib

Migraine with aura is associated with an elevated risk for incident atrial fibrillation.

FDA to Review Treatment for Jet Lag Disorder

In the Phase 3 JET8 study (N=318), patients underwent a circadian challenge of 8 hours in advance to their usual bedtime.

Global Lifetime Risk for Stroke About 25% in 2016

Estimated risk from age 25 years onward is 24.9%, with geographic variation in risk.

OCT Imaging Needle Can Detect Blood Vessels in Neurosurgery

OCT probe integrated into standard brain biopsy needle IDs vessels with high sensitivity, specificity.

Cognitive Decline Similar After Cardiac Surgery, Catheterization

No subjective memory decline observed in association with cardiac surgery in older adults.

Epilepsy, Sleep Apnea, and SUDEP: A Closer Look

The comorbid presence of central apnea has been identified by multiple researchers as predictive of SUDEP.

Type 2 Diabetes Risk Lower in Women With Active Migraine

Prevalence of active migraine decreased linearly in the 24 years prior to diabetes diagnosis.

T2DM Linked to Decline in Verbal Memory, Fluency in Older Adults

Brain atrophy does not appear to mediate the diabetes-cognition relationship.

Certain Sites of Brain Lesions in MS Tied to Bowel Incontinence

Left hemisphere dominates sensory visceral integration, right tied to the autonomic function.

Tap Water in Neti Pot Linked to Death From Brain-Eating Amoeba

Amoeba entered the upper nasal cavity and then the bloodstream, eventually reaching the brain.

Risk Up for Later-Born Siblings of Children With ASD, ADHD

Odds of both ASD and ADHD increased for later-born siblings of children with either diagnosis.

Smoking Linked to Cognitive Dysfunction in Fibromyalgia

In adjusted analysis, smoking tied to worse symptom severity, sleep problems, anxiety, depression.

Infections Linked to Increased Later Risk for Mental Disorders

Subsequent risk increased with infections requiring hospitalization, treatment with anti-infective agents.

Sleep Quality in Women With Surgical vs Natural Menopause

Women who undergo surgical menopause have significantly worse sleep quality than those who experience natural menopause.

Difficultly Distinguishing Drowning-Related Deaths From SUDEP

Researchers examined a database of seizure-related deaths to determine whether cause was drowning or sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

CDC: Acute Flaccid Myelitis Cases Appear to Have Peaked for 2018

As of Nov. 30, 134 cases of AFM have been confirmed in 33 states.

Prevalence of Ever-Diagnosed ASD 2.79% in US Children

70 percent of children with current ASD are treated; 20.3% receive behavioral treatment and medication.

High Daily Stress Linked to Migraine Prevalence in Women

The investigators sought to evaluate the prevalence of migraines, as well as the effect of sex and stress on migraines.

Risk of Sudden Death in Epilepsy Can Decline Over Time

Those with a low risk for SUDEP generally remain in this categorization during 3 years of tracking.

Burnout, Satisfaction Vary With Age, Sex Among Neurologists

Sex does not independently predict burnout, fatigue, overall quality of life after controlling for age.

Monitoring Movement Reflects Efficacy of Mandibular Splint

Monitoring mandibular movement reflects efficacy of oral appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnea.

Liquid Biopsy Can Assess Treatment Response of Peds Brain Tumors

Study is the first to document the utility of liquid biopsy in a pediatric brain tumor population.

Gene Therapy Forms New Polysynaptic Pathways in Parkinson

Patients receiving GAD gene therapy develop unique treatment-dependent polysynaptic brain circuit.

Amblyopia Linked to Lower Self-Perception in Children

Lower perception of scholastic, social, athletic competence could affect reading, motor skills.

CDC: US Prevalence of ALS Was 5.2 Per 100,000 in 2015

Total of 16,583 cases identified in 2015 using National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Registry.

Arterial Stiffness May Predict Dementia Risk

Adjustment for subclinical brain disease markers did not reduce link between arterial stiffness, dementia.

Dementia Tied to Mortality in Older Adults With Down Syndrome

Crude mortality rates for individuals with dementia were 5 times higher than for those without.

Mental Health Conditions, Suicide Up After Major Trauma

Rise seen in postinjury rate of mental health diagnoses; suicide rate higher than population average.

Critical Illness and the Brain: Managing Risk for Cognitive Adverse Effects

The results highlight the importance of evaluating and monitoring cognitive function in individuals with recent critical illness or major infections, especially if they are already at risk for dementia.

CDC Probe Continues as Cases of Acute Flaccid Myelitis Rise

252 patients currently under investigation for AFM, an increase of 33 patients since last week.

New Diagnostic Criteria for Neurosarcoidosis: What You Need to Know

The new guidelines will facilitate the design and development of clinical trials to test new therapies to minimize the burden of neurologic disability produced by neurosarcoidosis.

Repetitive Hits May Predispose Athletes to Concussion

Among college football players, number, severity of head impacts may affect risk for concussion.

Guidelines on the Use of OnabotulinumtoxinA for Chronic Migraine

Researchers and pain experts formulated guidelines for the use of onabotulinumtoxinA for the management of chronic migraine.

Concussion-Related Biomarkers Vary Based on Sex, Race

Level of S100B up after sports-related concussion, especially within 4 hours of concussion.

Type 2 Diabetes May Have Adverse Effect on Parkinson Disease Symptoms, Outcomes

Patients with both Parkinson disease and type 2 diabetes were more likely to have cardiovascular comorbidities than those with only Parkinson disease.

Alzheimer Disease Biomarkers Expose Individuals to Long-Term Care Insurance Denial

Approximately 5.5 million Americans have Alzheimer disease or dementia.

Biomarkers of Alzheimer Disease Observed in Down Syndrome

Neurological and neuropsychological examinations were performed to assess intellectual disabilities, and biological assays were performed on collected CSF and plasma.

Ivy League Rule Change Linked to Fewer Concussions During NCAA Football Games

A 2016 experimental rule change in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Ivy League play has been linked to a reduction in concussions among players.

Multiple System Atrophy: A Common Form of Atypical Parkinsonism

Multiple system atrophy is a rare, progressive neurodegenerative condition for which there is currently no cure.

Independent Links for Genetics, Lifestyle With Incident Stroke

Genetic and lifestyle factors are independently associated with incident stroke among men and women aged 40 to 73 years.

Half of Women Found to Develop Stroke, Dementia, or Parkinsonism

One in 2 women and 1 in 3 men will develop dementia, stroke, or parkinsonism during their lifetime.

Treating Chronic Itch: Therapeutic Review

Itch is "learned" in the nervous system, said Dr Berger, with involvement by both central and peripheral neural processes.

Exercise May Delay Symptoms of Alzheimer's in Those at Risk

Findings among individuals with a genetic mutation known to cause Alzheimer's.

Change in Dietary Patterns Over 5 Years in Early Multiple Sclerosis

Researchers analyze the dietary habits of 260 patients in the early stages of multiple sclerosis from baseline to 5 years after initial onset of symptoms.

Hospitals Using Get With the Guidelines-Stroke Program Offer Better Quality Care in Ischemic Stroke

The Get With the Guidelines-Stroke program includes measures such as neurologist assessment, rehabilitation evaluation, and education on stroke risk factors.

Fycompa Approved for Younger Epilepsy Patients With Partial-Onset Seizures

Safety data for Fycompa was consistent with the safety profile in adult populations without the need for weight-based dosing.

New AAN Guidelines for the Management of Disorders of Consciousness

The new guidelines place a substantial emphasis on the importance of introducing high-quality rehabilitation early in these patients.

Acetaminophen Can Reduce Recurrence of Febrile Seizures

For children, infants with febrile seizure, recurrence down with acetaminophen vs no antipyretic.

Digital Cognitive Therapy Eases Daytime Effects of Insomnia

Benefits include better functional health, sleep-related quality of life, psychological well-being.

NDA Submitted for Valtoco Nasal Spray to Treat Acute Repetitive Seizures

The Company states that the NDA is supported by robust clinical trial data, including patients studies where more than 1600 seizures were treated with Valtoco nasal spray.

Folic Acid Supplementation May Protect Against Language Delay in AED-Exposed Children

The odds of language delay were lower at 18 months and 36 months in children exposed to AEDs in utero whose mothers took folic acid.

Late-Onset Epilepsy Linked to APOE ε4, Smoking, Diabetes

The risk for late-onset epilepsy was lower in patients with higher physical activity levels and moderate alcohol intake.

Outcomes After Seizure Recurrence Upon AED Withdrawal Following Temporal Lobectomy

Recurrence of seizures was reported in 28.2% of patients who attempted withdrawal.

Diabetes Common in Patients With Ischemic, Hemorrhagic Stroke

Approximately 28% of stroke patients have diabetes, and the presence of diabetes can increase the risk for poor stroke outcome.

Sleep Duration, Stroke Link Varies With Race, Sex

Short sleep duration linked to reduced risk for black men; risk up for white men with long sleep duration.

Light Therapy Offers Nonpharmacologic Treatment for Perimenopausal Depression

Light treatments successfully corrected abnormal timing of melatonin circadian rhythms in perimenopausal women with depression and improved mood and sleep within 2 weeks.

Effects of Parental Decision Aids on ED CT Rates Among Children at Risk for TBI

Emergency department computed tomography rates for children with minor head trauma were not affected by parent decision aid use.

Recreational Screen Time, Sleep Duration Linked to Cognitive Development in Children

More than 2 hours of recreational screen time was found to be associated with cognitive decline in children.

Cesarean Delivery, Early Childhood Antibiotic Use Not Associated With Risk for ADHD

This research rejects any association between increased risk for ADHD and changes in children's microbiota related to cesarean delivery or antibiotic use.

Prevalence of Alzheimer's, Related Dementia Set to Double

Alzheimer's disease and related dementias burden is expected to increase to 3.3% in 2060.

Smoking Promotes Disease Progression in Multiple Sclerosis

Investigators examined the effects of smoking on respiratory symptoms and functional levels in patients with multiple sclerosis.

Age, Sex, APOE Genotype Identify Alzheimer's, Dementia Risk

Three factors help identify absolute 10-year risk of Alzheimer's disease, all dementia for different groups.

Brivaracetam Effective for Reducing Seizures in Patients with Epileptic Encephalopathies

Although 2 patients experienced an increase in seizure frequency, the remaining patients did not experience a change in frequency.

Many RA Patients' Pain Related to Central Nervous System

MRIs show rheumatoid arthritis patients have neurobiologic features observed in fibromyalgia.

Increased Dairy Consumption Linked to Reduced CVD, Mortality Risk in Low-, Middle-Income Countries

The consumption of whole-fat dairy products may reduce cardiovascular disease and mortality risk, contrary to current dietary guidelines that advise limited consumption of fat-free or low-fat dairy products.

New Guideline for Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Diagnosis, Management

Gradually increasing academic pursuits requires careful planning among the medical, school, and family units to enable prompt return and avoidance of prolonging school absence.

X-Rays, Blood Tests Not Advised for Children's Concussions

CT scans may be warranted in the case of vomiting, unconsciousness, and severe, worsening headaches.

Last 20 Years Saw Increase in Prevalence of ADHD in Children

Significant increases in prevalence in subgroups by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, geographic region.

In Stroke Survivors, Cost-Related Non-Adherence Down After ACA

Among adult survivors of stroke, Medicaid increased, non-adherence decreased after ACA implementation.

CHEST Releases Guideline for Antithrombotic Therapy in Atrial Fibrillation

Patients with atrial fibrillation who have ≥1 non-sex CHA2DS2VASc stroke risk factor should receive oral anticoagulation as antithrombotic therapy.

Raising Awareness of Pseudobulbar Affect: Knowing the Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment for Patients With Uncontrollable Laughing or Crying

Pseudobulbar affect is a significant national health issue in the United States, with approximately 2 million individuals affected.

Call to Better Investigate the Associations Between Sleep Disturbances and Chronic Pain

Although literature indicates bidirectional associations between sleep disturbances and pain, few longitudinal studies have examined the role of sleep disturbances in contributing to chronic pain.

Sensor Array May Detect De Novo Parkinson Disease in Breath

Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy values of 79, 84, and 81% for detecting PD from controls.

Treatment of New-Onset Epilepsy: AAN, AES Update Practice Guidelines

An expert subcommittee was formed consisting of members of the AAN and AES to update the 2004 evidence-based guidelines on epilepsy treatment with AEDs.

Cancer Patients Treated With Step III Opioids Often Have Sleep Disturbances

The majority of patients with cancer who are being treated with World Health Organization Step III opioids were found to experience poor sleep quality, often due to pain.

TBI Linked to Increased Suicide Risk

Increased suicide risk with one, two, and three or more medical contacts for traumatic brain injury.

Both Abstinence and High Alcohol Use Linked to Dementia

Increased dementia risk for those with abstinence or with drinking 14 units alcohol/week in midlife.

Pediatric Ward Noise at Night Exceeds Recommended Levels

Poorer quality sleep for children, parents attributed to high levels of noise.

Cognitive Impairment Profiles Differ Between Parkinson's, Alzheimer's

As the neurodegenerative processes of Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease are different, early cognitive impairment also present differently in these diseases.

New Clinical Guideline for Evaluating Alzheimer's, Related Dementias

Currently, there are no US consensus on best clinical practice guidelines that incorporate multispecialty recommendations for evaluating cognitive impairment that are thought to be due to Alzheimer's disease and Related Dementias (ADRD) for use by physicians and nurse practitioners.

Portable Sleep Monitoring Accurate in Heart Failure Patients

Respiratory polygraphy can accurately diagnose sleep apnea in patients hospitalized with heart failure.

Visual Function Deficits Up in Developmental Dyslexia

Increased prevalence of deficits in visual function vs typically developing school-age children.

Cardiac Pathology in SUDEP Compared With Sudden Arrhythmic or Traumatic Deaths

Causes of death in patients with epilepsy were assessed to determine the presence of cardiac pathology.

Overuse of Neuroimaging in the Emergency Department Reported for Pediatric Headache

Investigators examined rates, predictors, and outcomes of neuroimaging in pediatric and adolescent patients who presented to the ED with a headache.

Menopause Transition Often Prompts Changes in Migraine Pattern, Characteristics

This retrospective study sought to assess migraine patterns in 69 menopausal women between ages 40 and 60 who were treated at Partners Healthcare Hospitals for concurrent migraine headache.

Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness May Be Associated With Cognitive Function

Thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer has been linked to worsening cognitive function and may be valuable in identifying individuals who may be at risk for cognitive decline.

Weighing the Risks of Deep Brain Stimulation

DBS has been known to generate other movement-related disorders such as dyskinesias, blepharospasm, and hypokinesia.

Hormonal Contraceptives and Migraine: Is It Time to Revisit Stroke Risk?

Current oral contraceptive products contain lower doses of estrogen than those used in the past, prompting reconsideration of risks and benefits.

Menopausal Hormone Therapy Slows Cognitive Decline in Postmenopausal Women

Hormone therapy in postmenopausal women with mild cognitive impairment was examined.

Type 2 Diabetes Does Not Affect Pneumonia Incidence, Outcomes After Stroke

Investigators examined the incidence and outcomes of pneumonia in patients with acute ischemic stroke and type 2 diabetes.

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