Pediatrics Archive

Resistant A. Baumannii Increased in Children From 1999 to 2012

Increase seen carbapenem- and cephalosporin-resistant strains, with peak in 2008

Maternal Glucose, Fetal Genotype Independently Affect Birth Weight

Fetal genetic score for birth weight affects fetal growth at various maternal fasting plasma glucose levels.

Pediatric Kidney Recipients Often Have Subclinical Inflammation

Associated with increased risk of composite end point of acute rejection, allograft failure

Child Neuroblastoma Survivors at Risk for Psychological Impairment

Psychological impairment seen particularly in those with chronic health conditions

Childhood Obesity/Overweight Steadily Increased From 1999 to 2014

If trends continue, about one-third of children and one-half of teens will be obese/overweight by 2030.

Infant Omega-3 Supplementation Tied to Decreased Waist Size

At age 5 years, decreased waist circumference in both sexes, reduced insulin concentrations in boys

Adenoid, Tonsil Removal May Affect Later Respiratory Risks

Surgeries by age 9 associated with higher long-term risks of respiratory, infectious, allergic diseases

Some Common Allergies Linked to Odds of Autism in Children

Significant, positive link for common allergies, especially food allergy, with autism

Respiratory Pathogens May Increase Treatment Failure Risk in Asthma

Increased risk of treatment failure for children with asthma exacerbations presenting to the ER.

Mortality Still High After Surgery for Congenital Heart Defects

Long-term mortality elevated even for mild defects; overall survival improved over time

Microbiota in Breastfed Infants May Help Prevent Overweight

Elevated risk of overweight for formula-fed infants attenuated with adjustment for gut microbiota

Hepatitis C-Exposed Infants Not Adequately Screened

Low screening rate seen at same time as increase in hepatitis C virus prevalence among pregnant women

FDA: Updated Safety Alert Regarding Benzocaine-Associated Methemoglobinemia

The Agency is urging manufacturers to stop marketing OTC oral drug products containing benzocaine for teething to this patient population.

Is Current Hib Vaccine Effectiveness Decreasing in Children?

The hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine may not affect Hib vaccine efficacy.

Vitamin D Supplements May Reduce Recurrent Wheezing in Preterm Black Infants

In black infants who were born preterm, vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk for recurrent wheezing.

Prescription Medication Use Decreasing in Children, Adolescents

Estimates of prescription medication use in children and adolescents showed an overall decrease in use of any medication from 1999 to 2014.

AAP: Congress Urged to Act to Prevent Firearm Deaths

Following latest shooting, pediatricians join call for action to be taken to address firearm deaths, injury

Prolonged Exposure to Psychotropic Medications Common in Medicaid-Insured Children

Researchers emphasized the need for outcomes research in pediatric populations to elucidate the long-term effects of early and sustained psychotropic medication exposure.

Diethylstilbestrol Use in Pregnancy Linked to Multigenerational Neurodevelopmental Deficits

Diethylstilbestrol exposure during pregnancy is associated with multigenerational neurodevelopmental deficits in childhood, including ADHD.

Childhood-Onset Bipolar Disorder Associated With Impaired Family Functioning

Further investigation into the family-based mechanisms of childhood-onset bipolar disorder may assist in the development of future targeted, effective therapies.

Increase in Proportion of Births at Gestational Age 39 to 40 Weeks

From 2007 to 2015 there was a decrease in perinatal mortality at gestational ages 39 to 40 weeks

FDA Expands Use of MS Drug to Include Children

Gilenya is the first multiple sclerosis drug approved for children

Prevalence of Obese, Allergic Asthma Phenotypes Examined in US Children

The study authors examined data obtained from the 2007-2008 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) to determine the prevalence, risk factors, as well as the severity of asthma phenotypes.

No Clinical Benefit Seen for Bath Emollients in Childhood Eczema

POEM scores didn't meet minimal clinically important difference after adjustment for confounders

Preterm Infant Vitamin D Level Affects Calcium and Bone Health

Vitamin D levels in preterm infants are significantly correlated with optimal calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization of the femur.

Discerning Arterial Ischemic Stroke From Migraine in Pediatric Emergency Departments

Investigators examined presenting features of migraine vs arterial ischemic stroke in children presenting to the emergency department.

Unit-Dose Packaging Cuts Accidental Peds Opioid Exposures

Relative decrease in buprenorphine-naloxone exposure after transition to unit-dose packaging

Low Neighborhood Walkability Increases Risk of Asthma in Kids

Findings among children for both incident asthma and ongoing asthma.

Vitamin D Insufficiency Associated With Insulin Resistance Independent of Obesity in Children

Further clinical trials are needed to explore the potential beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation, via fortified foods and/or dietary supplements, on insulin resistance, and possibly on weight management.

Hypertension Increase in Children Based on 2017 AAP Guidelines

Increase in estimated population prevalence of elevated blood pressure from 11.8 to 14.2%.

Early Child Care Attendance and Asthma, Wheeze Risk: Is There a Link?

Early child care attendance increased the risk for wheeze in children ≤2 years of age but decreased the risk for asthma in children 3 to 5 years of age.

In Utero Caffeine Exposure Affects Early Childhood Weight

Maternal caffeine consumption tied to higher infant growth and childhood excess weight gain

Autism Linked to Prenatal Ultrasonography Depth

No statistically significant difference was observed in the number or duration of prenatal ultrasonographic scans across the entire pregnancy in children with later autism compared with controls with non-ASD developmental delay or typical development.

COPD Risk in Middle Age: The 3-Way Interaction of Asthma, Smoking, and Childhood Measles

A childhood measles infection may increase the risk for post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction in middle-age adults via its interaction with asthma and smoking.

Whole Body CT Not Linked to Reduced Mortality in Blunt Trauma

No significant difference in mortality for those undergoing whole body CT vs selective CT approach

Infant Use of Acid-Suppressants, Antibiotics Tied to Allergic Disease Development

Some allergic diseases associated with acid-suppressive, antibiotic intake in infants younger than 6 months old include food allergies, anaphylaxis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis.

In Utero Exposure to Multiple AEDs, Sodium Valproate Linked to Poor Educational Attainment in Childhood

In utero exposure to AEDs in combination, or sodium valproate alone, is associated with a significant decrease in attainment in national educational tests for 7-year-old children.

Obesity Can Negatively Affect Liver in Children As Young As 8

Increased adiposity in childhood may negatively impact liver function in children as young as 8 years old.

ADHD Frequently Occurs with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Co-occurrence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is common in children with autism spectrum disorder.

Maternal Probiotic, Fish Oil Intake Linked to Offspring Immune Development

Maternal diet may be correlated with certain autoimmune-associated diseases in offspring.

Pediatric irritability, depressive moods linked to suicidality in adolescence

Children with chronic irritability, including depressive or anxious moods, may be at an increased risk for suicidality or suicidal thoughts as adolescents.

Pediatric Asthma Unaffected by 5-fold Increased Inhaled Glucocorticoid Dose

Increasing inhaled glucocorticoid doses at initial signs of exacerbating asthma may not be effective.

Depression awareness, knowledge improved with peer awareness program

After program initiation in 10 high schools, students responded positively to the campaign by having greater awareness, better identification skills of depression, and reduced stigma.

High-Flow Oxygen Treatment Better for Infants with Bronchiolitis Than Standard Therapy

Compared with standard oxygen therapy, high-flow treatments were better for infants with bronchiolotis.

Complete fetal genome sequences can be obtained from amniotic fluid

Complete genome sequences were elucidated for 31 fetuses from amniotic fluid. Two methods of DNA extraction proved to be relatively equal in quality of complete genome sequence.

CDC reports increase in low birthweight from 2014 to 2016

Singleton low birthweight rates increased from 2014 to 2016, according to a March data brief by the CDC and NCHS.

Early Care Transitions Beneficial for Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

A diabetes transition registry may help adolescents with type 1 diabetes plan and prepare for independent adult care.

Pediatric Cancer Treatment and School Attendance: Lack of Consensus Remains

School attendance or daycare for immunosuppressed pediatric cancer patients remains a topic of uncertainty for many clinicians.

Postpartum Depression Screening Effective in the Pediatric Setting

Standardizing postpartum depression screening in the ambulatory pediatric setting coupled with implementing a referral algorithm and referral guide can help more PPD cases be identified, further evaluated, and treated.

Better glycemic control, weight reduction with surgical treatment for youths with T2D, severe obesity

For adolescents with type 2 diabetes and severe obesity, surgical therapy facilitates glycemic control and weight reduction better than medical therapy.

Depression Screening Improves Short- and Long-Term Outcomes in Pediatric Oncology

Implementing mental health services early on in pediatric oncology patients has significant benefits, as managing such distress before symptom severity worsens creates better short- and long-term outcomes.

Smoking Screening Beneficial in Pediatric Pulmonology Clinics

Adaption of processes in pediatric pulmonology clinics that may eliminate tobacco use and exposure will help with decreasing medical expenses and hospital admissions for illnesses that can be triggered from smoke exposure.

Teens More Responsive to STI Test Results via Text Message

Hospital notifications are received more quickly by teen patients with STIs as text messages rather than phone calls.

Hospitalization, PICU admissions increasing for pediatric opioid ingestions

The US opioid crisis is negatively affecting children, and the rate of hospitalization and pediatric intensive care unit admission for pediatric opioid ingestions is increasing.

Family Management Variables Predict Quality of Life in Children with Chronic Conditions

Increased daily family management, which includes attending to physical, psychological, or social aspects of a child with special healthcare needs, may be negatively associated with quality of life in children with chronic conditions.

Maternal Age, Stress May Be Associated with Poor Infant Feeding Practices

Maternal factors, such as age and stress levels, may be linked with infant feeding concerns.

Physical fitness in adolescence impacts adult lung performance

Involvement in aerobic fitness activities helps adolescents and children increase lung volume as adults but does not improve airway caliber.

Childhood bullying, abuse may increase teen pregnancy risk

Bullying and maltreatment may be factors that explain the high pregnancy levels in teenage sexual minorities.

Electronic Device Screen Time May Affect Mental Health of School-Aged Youths

Two primary care pediatric clinics study the relationship between screen time use and mental health effects on children between 6 and 12 years old.

FDA: World's smallest mechanical heart valve approved for newborns with heart defects

The world's smallest mechanical heart valve was approved by the FDA for newborns and young infants with heart defects.

NAPNAP Celebrates 45th Anniversary at 2018 National Conference

NAPNAP will celebrate its 45th anniversary at the organization's National Conference in Chicago from March 19-22, 2018.

Clinician HPV interventions facilitate adolescent HPV vaccination

Clinicians using communication training and fact sheets to inform adolescents about HPV, significantly increased vaccination initiation and completion rates among their patients.

Prenatal vitamin D may increase pediatric allergic rhinitis risk

Prenatal vitamin D is associated with an increased risk for allergic rhinitis in children born to African American women, but not white women.

Skin hypersensitivity in infants decreased with yogurt consumption

When testing for sensitivity to histamine, larger swelling sizes were recorded for infants with eczema and atopic dermatitis compared with infants without those conditions.

Allergic disease risk in children may increase with antibiotic exposure

Children who are exposed to antibiotics earlier in life may have an increased risk for allergic diseases, including asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis.

Race-dependent protective effect of maternal vitamin D on childhood asthma

A cohort from the CANDLE study was assessed to determine if race plays a role in the protective effect of maternal vitamin D levels on childhood asthma.

Alternatives to whole liver transplants possible for children

Technical variant grafts may be better than whole grafts for living donor liver transplants in children.

New guidelines issued for adolescent depression in primary care

The American Academy of Pediatrics has updated clinical practice guidelines to assist primary care clinicians in the management of adolescent depression.

Marijuana, alcohol intervention help reduce STI incidence

Behavioral interventions that include sexual risk reduction combined with alcohol- and cannabis-focused elements are effective at reducing sexually transmitted infection incidence among justice-involved adolescents.

Cerebral palsy, epilepsy risk associated with lower Apgar score

An inverse relation was observed between epilepsy and cerebral palsy and 5-minute and 10-minute Apgar scores.

2018 Immunization schedule for children, adolescents: ACIP recommendations

The updates contain new or revised ACIP recommendations for poliovirus, influenza, and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines, as well as a clarification of the recommendations for rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines.

Pediatric obesity rate may decrease with special nutrition programs

Severe obesity may decline in children enrolled in specialized diet programs.

Takeout meal consumption linked to adverse health risks in children

The increased rate of takeout meal consumption was correlated with higher total fat intake and lower intake of vitamin C, iron, and calcium.

Delayed treatment after epileptic seizure onset leads to higher mortality rate

Ill-timed administration of benzodiazepine treatment in pediatric patients with refractory convulsive status epilepticus is associated with many short-term adverse events.

CDC reports lack of sleep in majority of school children

Nearly 75% of high school students are not getting enough sleep.

Postsurgical death risk greater in black children

Preoperative risk factors were greater in African-American children compared with white children.

Optimizing pediatric health between pediatricians and public health professionals: AAP recommendations

In a policy statement Pediatrics , recommendations are presented for increasing cooperation between pediatricians and public health professionals in order to ensure optimal health for children.

Comorbidity risks increase in children with psoriasis

Some of the comorbidities include increased lipid levels, hypertension, and diabetes.

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis screening: a USPSTF recommendation statement

The USPSTF has updated its recommendations on screening for idiopathic scoliosis in asymptomatic adolescents.

CDC: Unsafe infant sleep practices prevalent in the US

Unsafe sleep practices, including placing infants in a non-supine sleep position, are still prevalent in the United States.

Maternal folic acid, multivitamin use linked to reduced autism risk

Use of folic acid or multivitamins during pregnancy is associated with a significantly reduced risk of ASD in offspring.

Some infants are prematurely exposed to complementary foods

About 16% of infants under 4 months were fed foods other than breast milk or formula.

Infant mortality rate varied by state, race from 2013 to 2015

The infant mortality rate varied by state, from 4.28 to 9.08 per 1,000 live births in Massachusetts and Mississippi, respectively, in 2013 through 2015.

Obesity in preschoolers leads to exacerbated asthma

Overweight/obese preschools have greater asthma symptoms than normal-weight children when untreated.

Steady rate of marijuana use associated with decline in cigarette, alcohol use in adolescents

Adolescent marijuana prevalence today would be at or near record highs if cigarette use had not declined since 2005.

Average birth weights have decreased among infants born in Flint, Michigan

Average birth weights among infants born in Flint, Michigan, have decreased after the city's shift from using the Detroit Water Authority to the Flint River for its tap water source.

Children are exposed to more allergens in daycare than at home

Day-care centers have more allergens from pets and mites than in homes.

Prescription video game shows promising results for pediatric ADHD

A study of an investigational digital medicine achieves its primary efficacy end point in pediatric ADHD.

Omega-3 supplementation improves pediatric executive functioning

Omega-3 supplementation in children with mood disorders is associated with decreased impairment in executive functioning.

Cerebral morphometric alterations can help detect ADHD in children

Cerebral morphometric alterations can discriminate between children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and controls.

Methotrexate vs tumor necrosis factor inhibitors for pediatric psoriasis

Medication-related adverse events occur more frequently with methotrexate in children with moderate to severe psoriasis.

ADHD medication in pregnancy linked to few absolute increased risks

Women with significant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder do not need to stop treatment during pregnancy.

Clinician accuracy low for lyme disease diagnosis

Clinician suspicion has minimal accuracy for the diagnosis of Lyme disease.

Brief intervention may be beneficial for adolescents with chronic pain

A combination of psychoeducation, cognitive-based therapy, visualization, and breathing exercises may represent a tolerable and readily accepted complementary therapeutic approach for adolescent patients with chronic pain.

Distinct treatment trajectories vary for childhood depression

Youths receiving dual therapy for depression had the highest incidence of attempted suicide compared with those receiving monotherapy.

Prenatal ADHD treatment linked to neonatal morbidity

Treatment with ADHD medication during pregnancy was associated with a higher risk for neonatal morbidity, especially central nervous system-related disorders such as seizures.

Delayed vs immediate cord clamping: comparing the impact on preterm infant health

Delayed and immediate umbilical cord clamping show no major differences in health of preterm infants.

Vaccination coverage remains above 90% for infants

Infants aged 19-35 months had vaccination rates above 90%.

AAP releases updated information on cord blood banking

The policy statement from the AAP recommends public cord blood banking for collecting, processing, and using cord blood cells.

Halloween tips for children with diabetes

With a little creativity, children with diabetes can enjoy the festivities of Halloween.

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