Pediatrics Archive

Increased Nurse Workload Linked to Missed Care in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

Nurse staffing ratios and subjective workload were found to be directly associated with missed care in a NICU.

USPSTF Intervention to Prevent Child Maltreatment

The United States Preventive Services Task Force has updated their 2013 recommendations for clinician interventions to prevent maltreatment in children.

Childhood Behavioral Interventions May Promote Adult Cardiovascular Health

Focusing on children for health promotion, strategies for program implementation, and gaps in research may be a successful approach for lifelong cardiovascular health.

Lack of Peds Preventive Care Ups Unplanned Hospital Admissions

Infants and children lacking vaccinations, development checks more likely to be admitted.

Oral Immunomodulatory Therapy for Pediatric Peanut Allergy

Pediatric patients with peanut allergy may benefit from an oral immunomodulatory treatment that can reduce the severity of symptoms associated with peanut protein ingestion.

Prevalence of Ever-Diagnosed ASD 2.79% in US Children

70 percent of children with current ASD are treated; 20.3% receive behavioral treatment and medication.

For Teen Girls, Depression May Predict Subsequent Alcohol Use

Depression severity predicts increased likelihood of alcohol use; link for reverse pathway inconsistent.

Liquid Biopsy Can Assess Treatment Response of Peds Brain Tumors

Study is the first to document the utility of liquid biopsy in a pediatric brain tumor population.

Amblyopia Linked to Lower Self-Perception in Children

Lower perception of scholastic, social, athletic competence could affect reading, motor skills.

Probiotic Found to Be Effective for Colic in Breastfed Infants

The probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM17938 may be useful for managing colic in breastfed infants; however, its efficacy in formula-fed infants is unclear.

USPSTF Updates Recommendations for Screening, Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Unhealthy Alcohol Use

The USPSTF recommends that primary care providers assess for unhealthy use of alcohol and offer behavioral counseling interventions in patients ≥18 years of age.

Insurance Gaps May Increase Emergency Department Visits in Children With Asthma

Gaps in insurance coverage increased the odds of asthma-related emergency department intervention or hospitalization and exacerbations.

AAP Responds to Tear Gas Use at US-Mexico Border

The American Academy of Pediatrics has released a statement responding to the use of tear gas on families and children seeking asylum at the US-Mexico border.

Prevalence of Eating Disorders 1.4% in Preteens

No statistically significant differences in prevalence rates seen between boys and girls.

Probiotics Show No Benefits for Pediatric Acute Gastroenteritis

No benefits seen with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG or L. rhamnosus R0011 and L. helveticus R0052.

Youth Smoking Decline Mirrors Rise in Vaping Popularity

Large rise in youth vaping, decline in past 30-day smoking prevalence accelerated around 2014.

ED Utilization Up for Pediatric mTBI After TBI Legislation

Proportion of ED visits increased from 5 years before to after legislation.

ACAAI: Almost 2% of Children Have Milk Allergy

Among children with food allergy, 53% of infants have milk allergy vs 15% of teens.

Obesity as a Teen Ups Risk for Later Pancreatic Cancer

In men, overweight and even higher normal weight tied to increased risk.

ADA Issues Position Statement on Comprehensive Care for Pediatric T2D

The American Diabetes Association issued a position statement outlining the recognition, management, and prevention of T2D in the pediatric population.

Long Wait Times Between Referral and Interdisciplinary Pediatric Chronic Pain Evaluation

For adolescents with chronic pain, wait times to evaluation at an interdisciplinary pain clinic after referral were long and were associated with anxious anticipation and frustration from families.

One-Third of Peds Medication Errors Due to Usability Issues

EHR usability issues contribute to 36% of med errors; 18.8% may have caused harm.

CHEST Guidelines for Clinical Diagnosis of Pertussis-Associated Cough

In adult patients, pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were generated for 4 clinical features: paroxysmal cough, posttussive vomiting, inspiratory whoop, and absence of fever.

CDC: Increases in Yoga, Meditation for Children from 2012-2017

The use of yoga and meditation have increased in recent years among children and adults, while use of chiropractors has also increased among adults.

Avocado Implicated in Several Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome Cases

FPIES is a gastrointestinal food-associated hypersensitivity that often affects infants and toddlers and is marked by vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, and pallor.

Pediatric Anesthesia Does Not Affect Development Outcomes

Young children who have surgical procedures that require general anesthesia do not have an increased risk for adverse child development outcomes.

Updated Guidelines Released for Emergency Care of Children

The American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Emergency Physicians, and Emergency Nurses Association have released updated guidelines for emergency care of injured and critically ill children.

Foster Care of Children Reduces Risk for Psychopathology Associated With Institutionalized Care

Between the age of 8 and 16, the foster care group showed significant declines in externalizing psychopathology while no change was seen in the institutionalized group.

Lung Function Improved With Dupilumab in Adolescents With Asthma

Adolescents with asthma treated with dupilumab experienced significant improvements in FEV1 compared with placebo.

AFM: Outbreak of Polio-Like Disease Causing Paralysis in Children

Health officials aren't sure what causes acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), a rare but serious polio-like disease that has emerged in the United States.

USPSTF: Evidence Lacking for Lead Screen in Kids, Pregnancy

The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has concluded that current evidence is insufficient for assessing the balance of harms and benefits of screening for elevated blood lead levels in asymptomatic children and pregnant women.

Half of Children Aged 2 to 5 Years Fear Doctor Visits

Half of parents report that their children aged 2 to 5 years are afraid of going to the doctor.

Antibiotics, Acid Suppressants in Infancy May Up Obesity Risk

Prescription of antibiotics and acid-suppressing medications in early childhood is associated with an increased risk for obesity.

Trick-or-Treating Pedestrian Fatalities: Awareness, Safety Interventions Can Reduce Risks

Trick-or-treating is a rite of passage for some, but has the potential to become deadly.

Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates Linked to Language Delay

Prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with language delay in children.

Prior-Season Vaccination Not Associated With Flu Shot Effectiveness

Prior-season vaccination is not associated with reduced vaccine effectiveness among children aged 2 to 17 years.

Probiotics May Reduce Antibiotic Use for Common Acute Infections in Children

Probiotics provided to reduce the risk for common acute infections may be associated with reduced antibiotic use in infants and children.

Infant HIV Infection Increases the Risk for Congenital CMV Infection

HIV-exposed infants have high rates of congenital cCMV infection, and in utero HIV infection seems to be a major risk factor for cCMV.

High Cost of Clinical Trials Under FDA Pediatric Exclusivity Program Examined

The costs to patients are high when trials are carried out under the FDA's pediatric exclusivity program.

Asthma Risk in Infants Predicted by Total Serum Bilirubin

Total serum bilirubin levels of 9 to 11.9 mg/dL, 12 to 14.9 mg/dL, and 15 to 17.9 mg/dL were associated with significantly greater risks for asthma in infants.

Advance Care Planning Lowers Symptoms in Teens With HIV

Family-centered pediatric advance care planning is associated with a lower likelihood of symptoms and suffering for adolescents with HIV.

Low Risk for Bacterial Coinfections in Febrile Infants With Viral Infections

Infants ≤60 days old with fever and confirmed viral infections are at a lower risk for serious bacterial infections compared to infants without a virus.

Guidelines Outlined to Ease Peds Transition to Adult Health Care

Recommendations developed in realms of infrastructure, education, payment, research.

Asthma May Increase Obesity Risk Later in Childhood

Early-onset asthma and wheezing may contribute to an increased risk of developing obesity later in childhood.

Third Trimester Immunization With Tdap Vaccine Optimal for Pertussis Toxin Antibody Concentrations in Newborns

Immunization with Tdap vaccine during the third trimester of pregnancy resulted in higher concentrations of pertussis toxin antibodies in newborns.

CDC Warns of Polio-Like Virus Striking More US Children

127 cases reported in 22 states so far this year with 62 confirmed as acute flaccid myelitis.

Recommendations Developed to Verify Nasogastric Tube Placement in Children

Recommendations include clinician education, use of gastric pH measurement, radiographs.

Pneumococcal H Influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine Effective in Children

The burden of childhood and infant pneumonia can be effectively reduced through the use of the pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine.

Nine Cases of Polio-Like Illness Suspected in Children in Illinois

Five possible cases reported in Washington state; 14 confirmed cases reported in Colorado.

CDC: Many Children With Heart Conditions Have Special Needs

One in 77 US children reportedly had heart conditions in 2016, with special needs in 60%.

Childhood Obesity Persists Into Adolescence

Greater weight gain in early childhood often carries over to overweight and obesity in adolescence.

Fycompa Approved for Younger Epilepsy Patients With Partial-Onset Seizures

Safety data for Fycompa was consistent with the safety profile in adult populations without the need for weight-based dosing.

Acetaminophen Can Reduce Recurrence of Febrile Seizures

For children, infants with febrile seizure, recurrence down with acetaminophen vs no antipyretic.

Morbidity, Mortality Up for Youth With CHD Presenting to ED

Children with congenital heart disease presenting to ED at increased risk for morbidity, mortality.

Folic Acid Supplementation May Protect Against Language Delay in AED-Exposed Children

The odds of language delay were lower at 18 months and 36 months in children exposed to AEDs in utero whose mothers took folic acid.

Additional Symjepi Dosage Strength Approved for Anaphylaxis Treatment

Both doses will be supplied in single-dose, prefilled syringes for manual injection.

Soft Drinks Account for 20% of Youth Beverage Consumption

Despite dietary recommendations, soft drinks make up about one-fifth of total beverage consumption by US youth.

Breastfeeding Inversely Linked to Infant BMI Z Score

Breastfeeding is inversely associated with body mass index z scores measured at 12 months, and the association is attenuated with formula supplementation by 6 months.

Monovalent Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Safe and Effective for Neonates With Mothers Unvaccinated for Tdap

The monovalent acellular pertussis vaccine may be beneficial to neonates whose mothers did not receive Tdap vaccine during pregnancy.

Effects of Parental Decision Aids on ED CT Rates Among Children at Risk for TBI

Emergency department computed tomography rates for children with minor head trauma were not affected by parent decision aid use.

Discrimination Concern in Adolescents Linked to Increased Substance Use

Teens whose concern over societal discrimination grew between 2016 and 2017 increased their cigarette and marijuana use.

AAP Provides Recommendations for Teen Drivers, Parents

Parents should be reminded that their driving and behavior will shape the behavior of their teen drivers.

Recreational Screen Time, Sleep Duration Linked to Cognitive Development in Children

More than 2 hours of recreational screen time was found to be associated with cognitive decline in children.

Pest Allergies in Urban Adolescents Exacerbate Poorly Controlled Asthma

Cockroach and mouse allergies were most often associated with poorly controlled asthma and exacerbations in urban adolescents.

Allergy, But Not Asthma, Risk Increased in Children of East Asian Descent

Children of East Asian-born parents had an increased risk for allergic rhinitis and aeroallergen sensitization compared with children of Caucasian ancestry.

Cesarean Delivery, Early Childhood Antibiotic Use Not Associated With Risk for ADHD

This research rejects any association between increased risk for ADHD and changes in children's microbiota related to cesarean delivery or antibiotic use.

AAP Report Addresses Managing Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Recommendations developed to support pediatric providers in managing patients with FASD diagnosis.

PUFAs Inversely Associated With Asthma in Preschool Children

Total omega-3 and omega-6 plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids relative abundances were significantly inversely correlated with asthma/recurrent wheeze and allergic sensitization.

Prenatal Insecticide Exposure in Mother May Be Linked to Risk for Autism in Children

Levels of p,p'-DDE were higher in mothers of children with autism than in mothers of children in the control group.

Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease Score Underestimates Mortality

The PELD score underestimates the actual probability of 90-day pretransplant mortality for children undergoing a primary liver transplant.

Cesarean Delivery Linked to Food Allergy in Offspring

Children born by cesarean delivery who were large for gestational age and had low Apgar scores may be at increased risk of developing a food allergy.

Relationship Between Atopic Disorders May Be Age Dependent

Although allergic sensitization and hay fever rates increased as children grew older, the rates of asthma dropped.

FDA Gets Tough on Juul, Other Electronic Cigarette Makers

More than 1200 warning letters and fines have been sent to retailers and major e-cigarette manufacturers.

Chest Radiograph Effective for Excluding Pediatric Pneumonia

CXR had negative predictive value of 98.8% in children evaluated for suspected pneumonia.

Perinatal Photoperiod May Influence Lifetime Depression in Offspring

Extreme differences in daily photoperiod during pregnancy may be related to risk for lifetime depression in offspring.

New Guideline for Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Diagnosis, Management

Gradually increasing academic pursuits requires careful planning among the medical, school, and family units to enable prompt return and avoidance of prolonging school absence.

Nurse-Led Call After Discharge Doesn't Cut Peds Urgent Care

One-time nurse-led call does not lower reutilization of urgent care services after pediatric discharge.

Adding Fish Oil in Pregnancy May Lead to Higher Child BMI

Supplementation linked to higher BMI z score at age 6 years but no higher proportion of obese children.

Short-Course Oral Steroids Ineffective for Pediatric Otitis Media With Effusion

A short course of oral steroids was not found to significantly improve otitis media with effusion in children.

Benefits of NSAIDs as Part of Multimodal Analgesia Regimen in Children

Perioperative and emergency department use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as part of a multimodal analgesia regimen may improve pain control in pediatric populations and avoid opioid-related adverse events.

X-Rays, Blood Tests Not Advised for Children's Concussions

CT scans may be warranted in the case of vomiting, unconsciousness, and severe, worsening headaches.

AAP Updates Recommendations for Pediatric Flu Vaccination

All children age 6 months and older, including teens, advised to undergo annual immunization.

Recent Increase in Contraception Use Noted Among US Teenagers

Increases in use of 1 or more contraceptive methods, dual-method use, long-acting reversibles.

Postoperative Complications of Pediatric Appendicitis Increase Risk for Adverse Events, Greater Hospital Resource Use

Complicated appendicitis in pediatric patients may result in surgical site infections, revisits, increased length of stay, and increased cumulative cost from all encounters.

Last 20 Years Saw Increase in Prevalence of ADHD in Children

Significant increases in prevalence in subgroups by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, geographic region.

Drinking Water Turned Off in All Detroit's Public Schools

Decision made 'out of an abundance of caution and concern for the safety of students and employees'.

Pediatric Revisits, Admissions for UTI Similar With Oral or IV Meds

Findings support ED discharge with oral antibiotics for children with urinary tract infection.

Pfizer Recalls a Type of Children's Liquid Advil

Recall due to mismarked dosage cup in 4-oz bottles of Children's Advil Suspension Bubble Gum Flavored.

CDC: Most Babies Born in 2015 Started Out Breastfeeding

But less than one-half and one-quarter are exclusively breastfeeding through 3 and 6 months.

Spinal Manipulation Plus Exercise Effective for Teen Low Back Pain

Spinal manipulative therapy plus exercise more effective than exercise alone over 1-year period.

Does Adolescent Vaccination Increase Primary Ovarian Insufficiency Risk?

For this study, researchers investigated the incidence of primary ovarian insufficiency incidence and estimated risk for POI after vaccination with human papillomavirus, Tdap, influenza and meningococcal conjugate using Kaiser Permanente Northwest electronic health records from 2006 to 2014.

ASMBS Pediatric Committee Updates Guidelines on Bariatric Surgery in Teens

The American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Pediatric Committee has updated their 2012 evidence-based guidelines.

Psych Screening Beneficial in Pediatric Abdominal Pain

Children with abdominal pain commonly had clinically significant anxiety, moderate disability, pain.

AAP Outlines Appropriate Pediatric Nephrology Testing

Five evidence-based recommendations list tests, procedures that doctors, patients should question.

New York State Mandate for Pediatric Sepsis Bundled Care Linked to Lower Mortality

Completion of a care bundle for pediatric patients within 1 hour of sepsis recognition, which includes blood cultures, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and a 20-mL/kg intravenous fluid bolus, was associated with lower in-hospital mortality among children with sepsis and septic shock

AAP Provides Safety Precautions to Prevent Drowning

Drowning is leading cause of unintentional injury-related death for children aged 1 to 4 years.

HPV Legislation Doesn't Impact Teen Sexual Behaviors

No substantive or significant associations between HPV legislation and adolescent sexual behaviors.

Completing Sepsis Bundle Within an Hour Cuts Pediatric Mortality

However, completing individual bundle elements in that timeframe does not reduce pediatric mortality.

Parental Belief in Religion Lowers Child Suicide Risk

Findings independent of offsprings' views on religious importance.

ADA Releases Updated Guidelines for Managing Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes

It is critical for us to remember that children are not little adults. Pediatric-onset diabetes is different from adult-onset diabetes due to its distinct epidemiology, pathophysiology, developmental considerations, and response to therapy.

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