Pediatrics Archive

Chest Radiograph Effective for Excluding Pediatric Pneumonia

CXR had negative predictive value of 98.8% in children evaluated for suspected pneumonia.

Perinatal Photoperiod May Influence Lifetime Depression in Offspring

Extreme differences in daily photoperiod during pregnancy may be related to risk for lifetime depression in offspring.

New Guideline for Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Diagnosis, Management

Gradually increasing academic pursuits requires careful planning among the medical, school, and family units to enable prompt return and avoidance of prolonging school absence.

Nurse-Led Call After Discharge Doesn't Cut Peds Urgent Care

One-time nurse-led call does not lower reutilization of urgent care services after pediatric discharge.

Adding Fish Oil in Pregnancy May Lead to Higher Child BMI

Supplementation linked to higher BMI z score at age 6 years but no higher proportion of obese children.

Short-Course Oral Steroids Ineffective for Pediatric Otitis Media With Effusion

A short course of oral steroids was not found to significantly improve otitis media with effusion in children.

Benefits of NSAIDs as Part of Multimodal Analgesia Regimen in Children

Perioperative and emergency department use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as part of a multimodal analgesia regimen may improve pain control in pediatric populations and avoid opioid-related adverse events.

X-Rays, Blood Tests Not Advised for Children's Concussions

CT scans may be warranted in the case of vomiting, unconsciousness, and severe, worsening headaches.

AAP Updates Recommendations for Pediatric Flu Vaccination

All children age 6 months and older, including teens, advised to undergo annual immunization.

Recent Increase in Contraception Use Noted Among US Teenagers

Increases in use of 1 or more contraceptive methods, dual-method use, long-acting reversibles.

Postoperative Complications of Pediatric Appendicitis Increase Risk for Adverse Events, Greater Hospital Resource Use

Complicated appendicitis in pediatric patients may result in surgical site infections, revisits, increased length of stay, and increased cumulative cost from all encounters.

Last 20 Years Saw Increase in Prevalence of ADHD in Children

Significant increases in prevalence in subgroups by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, geographic region.

Drinking Water Turned Off in All Detroit's Public Schools

Decision made 'out of an abundance of caution and concern for the safety of students and employees'.

Pediatric Revisits, Admissions for UTI Similar With Oral or IV Meds

Findings support ED discharge with oral antibiotics for children with urinary tract infection.

Pfizer Recalls a Type of Children's Liquid Advil

Recall due to mismarked dosage cup in 4-oz bottles of Children's Advil Suspension Bubble Gum Flavored.

CDC: Most Babies Born in 2015 Started Out Breastfeeding

But less than one-half and one-quarter are exclusively breastfeeding through 3 and 6 months.

Spinal Manipulation Plus Exercise Effective for Teen Low Back Pain

Spinal manipulative therapy plus exercise more effective than exercise alone over 1-year period.

Does Adolescent Vaccination Increase Primary Ovarian Insufficiency Risk?

For this study, researchers investigated the incidence of primary ovarian insufficiency incidence and estimated risk for POI after vaccination with human papillomavirus, Tdap, influenza and meningococcal conjugate using Kaiser Permanente Northwest electronic health records from 2006 to 2014.

ASMBS Pediatric Committee Updates Guidelines on Bariatric Surgery in Teens

The American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Pediatric Committee has updated their 2012 evidence-based guidelines.

Psych Screening Beneficial in Pediatric Abdominal Pain

Children with abdominal pain commonly had clinically significant anxiety, moderate disability, pain.

AAP Outlines Appropriate Pediatric Nephrology Testing

Five evidence-based recommendations list tests, procedures that doctors, patients should question.

New York State Mandate for Pediatric Sepsis Bundled Care Linked to Lower Mortality

Completion of a care bundle for pediatric patients within 1 hour of sepsis recognition, which includes blood cultures, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and a 20-mL/kg intravenous fluid bolus, was associated with lower in-hospital mortality among children with sepsis and septic shock

AAP Provides Safety Precautions to Prevent Drowning

Drowning is leading cause of unintentional injury-related death for children aged 1 to 4 years.

HPV Legislation Doesn't Impact Teen Sexual Behaviors

No substantive or significant associations between HPV legislation and adolescent sexual behaviors.

Completing Sepsis Bundle Within an Hour Cuts Pediatric Mortality

However, completing individual bundle elements in that timeframe does not reduce pediatric mortality.

Parental Belief in Religion Lowers Child Suicide Risk

Findings independent of offsprings' views on religious importance.

ADA Releases Updated Guidelines for Managing Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes

It is critical for us to remember that children are not little adults. Pediatric-onset diabetes is different from adult-onset diabetes due to its distinct epidemiology, pathophysiology, developmental considerations, and response to therapy.

HIV, Syphilis Screening Low With ED-Diagnosed PID in Adolescents

Findings among teens diagnosed with pelvic inflammatory disease in the emergency department.

American Heart Association Urges Screen Time Limits for Youth

Increasing screen trends may have negative cardiometabolic impact; panel calls for more research.

Vitamin D Supplementation Does Not Improve Fetal, Infant Growth

Findings based on study of Bangladeshi women and infants, a population with known deficiency.

Resource Use Greater for More Severe Pediatric Appendicitis

Findings suggest need for reimbursement to have severity adjustment, especially in underserved areas.

Asthma Hospitalization Risk in Children From Grass, Weed, and Other Pollens

Grass, other weeds, and unclassified pollen were significantly associated with increased risk for asthma hospitalization in young children.

Pediatric Ward Noise at Night Exceeds Recommended Levels

Poorer quality sleep for children, parents attributed to high levels of noise.

Outpatient Opioid Prescriptions for Children Often Filled

Cumulative incidence of opioid-related adverse events was 38.3 per 100,000 prescriptions.

WIC Program Enrollment Linked to Declining Pediatric Obesity

Childhood obesity continues to be a public health issue that requires improved policies and interventions at both the individual and population level.

Rotavirus Vaccination Linked to Decrease in Hospitalizations

A significant decline in rotavirus disease-associated hospitalization, emergency department visits, and physician office visits was demonstrated in children younger than 5 years following implementation of the rotavirus vaccine.

Child Health Concerns Related to Use of Food Additives

Substantial improvements to food additives regulatory system are needed.

Lithium Use During Pregnancy Linked to Infant, Maternal Health Risks

Maternal lithium use in the first trimester of pregnancy may increase the risk for infant malformations.

Lack of Vaccination in High-Exempt Areas Linked to Medical Distrust

Exemption from vaccination is common in Arizona school districts due to lack of trust in medical establishments.

Food-Induced Anaphylaxis Risk in Infants, Children

Respiratory symptoms were more common in older children compared with infants who presented with food-induced anaphylaxis.

More Youths With Hypertension Using 2017 AAP Guidelines

Weighted net estimated increase of 795,000 US youths being reclassified as having hypertension.

Guidelines for Management of Hypothalamic-Pituitary, Growth Disorders in Childhood Cancer Survivors

The Endocrine Society, European Society of Endocrinology, and Pediatric Endocrine Society issue guidelines for the management of hypothalamic-pituitary and growth disorders in childhood cancer survivors.

Decrease in Mean Platelet Counts Seen During Pregnancy

Platelet counts of 150,000/mm at time of delivery more common with pregnancy-related complications

Two-Thirds of Parents Report Their Child Has Had Headache

Only 44 of parents would definitely go to ER if their child had headache that didn't improve with medication.

Overuse of Neuroimaging in the Emergency Department Reported for Pediatric Headache

Investigators examined rates, predictors, and outcomes of neuroimaging in pediatric and adolescent patients who presented to the ED with a headache.

Pelvic Exam in ER Doesn't Help Predict STI for Young Females

Pelvic exam doesn't add to history for diagnosis of STIs in young females with suspected cervicitis, PID.

Otitis Media-Related Ambulatory Visits Declined After Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

The administration of PCV7 and PCV13 reduced the number of ambulatory visits for otitis media in pediatric patients.

Blister Packs for Several Meds Recalled Due to Risk of Harm to Children

The recall affects approximately 470,000 units that include drugs packaged with 3 to 10 tablets per blister card. The blister packs were developed for use in hospitals, however some were sent to retail pharmacies and were likely dispensed for in-home use.

New AAP Policy on Patient Dismissal for Vaccine Refusal May "Erode Solidarity" Among Pediatricians

Others have argued that dismissal is ethically problematic because it can deprive children of comprehensive pediatric care and undermine public health.

AMA Adopts Policy to Cut Sugar Sweetened Drink Consumption

Policy supports evidence-based strategies such as excise taxes, adding warning labels

Metabolic Health Predicative of Cognitive Development in Children

Researchers assessed whether current metabolic parameters are inversely associated with cognitive functioning.

Prenatal Pediatric Visit Recommended for Expectant Families

Visit provides unique opportunity to address relationship between family and pediatric practice.

Implantable Continuous Glucose Monitoring Device Safe, Effective for Adolescents

The safety assessment included incidence of insertion or procedure-related removal and device-related serious adverse events through 180 after insertion.

Early Preterm Birth Linked to Increased ADHD Symptoms

Association holds after adjustment for unmeasured genetic, environmental factors

Childhood Abuse Linked to Compromised White Matter Integrity in Bipolar Disorder

These findings are in line with previous research, which suggested that abuse and neglect in childhood have different effects on the brain.

Poison Control Center Data Detail Pediatric Exposure to Buprenorphine

Pediatric exposure to buprenorphine can result in serious adverse outcomes, especially among children aged younger than 6 years.

Handheld Device Can ID Cardiac Dysfunction in Cancer Survivors

Vivio can accurately detect cardiac dysfunction in anthracycline-exposed childhood cancer survivors

Sodium Chloride Fluid Infusion Rates Do Not Affect Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Sodium chloride content of intravenous fluids does not affect neurologic events in children with diabetic ketoacidosis.

Gastroesophageal Reflux in Preterm Infants: Diagnosis and Management

The American Academy of Pediatrics releases a new clinical report on the diagnosis and treatment of clinically significant gastroesophageal reflux.

Resistant A. Baumannii Increased in Children From 1999 to 2012

Increase seen carbapenem- and cephalosporin-resistant strains, with peak in 2008

Maternal Glucose, Fetal Genotype Independently Affect Birth Weight

Fetal genetic score for birth weight affects fetal growth at various maternal fasting plasma glucose levels.

Pediatric Kidney Recipients Often Have Subclinical Inflammation

Associated with increased risk of composite end point of acute rejection, allograft failure

Child Neuroblastoma Survivors at Risk for Psychological Impairment

Psychological impairment seen particularly in those with chronic health conditions

Childhood Obesity/Overweight Steadily Increased From 1999 to 2014

If trends continue, about one-third of children and one-half of teens will be obese/overweight by 2030.

Infant Omega-3 Supplementation Tied to Decreased Waist Size

At age 5 years, decreased waist circumference in both sexes, reduced insulin concentrations in boys

Adenoid, Tonsil Removal May Affect Later Respiratory Risks

Surgeries by age 9 associated with higher long-term risks of respiratory, infectious, allergic diseases

Some Common Allergies Linked to Odds of Autism in Children

Significant, positive link for common allergies, especially food allergy, with autism

Respiratory Pathogens May Increase Treatment Failure Risk in Asthma

Increased risk of treatment failure for children with asthma exacerbations presenting to the ER.

Mortality Still High After Surgery for Congenital Heart Defects

Long-term mortality elevated even for mild defects; overall survival improved over time

Microbiota in Breastfed Infants May Help Prevent Overweight

Elevated risk of overweight for formula-fed infants attenuated with adjustment for gut microbiota

Hepatitis C-Exposed Infants Not Adequately Screened

Low screening rate seen at same time as increase in hepatitis C virus prevalence among pregnant women

FDA: Updated Safety Alert Regarding Benzocaine-Associated Methemoglobinemia

The Agency is urging manufacturers to stop marketing OTC oral drug products containing benzocaine for teething to this patient population.

Is Current Hib Vaccine Effectiveness Decreasing in Children?

The hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine may not affect Hib vaccine efficacy.

Vitamin D Supplements May Reduce Recurrent Wheezing in Preterm Black Infants

In black infants who were born preterm, vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk for recurrent wheezing.

Prescription Medication Use Decreasing in Children, Adolescents

Estimates of prescription medication use in children and adolescents showed an overall decrease in use of any medication from 1999 to 2014.

AAP: Congress Urged to Act to Prevent Firearm Deaths

Following latest shooting, pediatricians join call for action to be taken to address firearm deaths, injury

Prolonged Exposure to Psychotropic Medications Common in Medicaid-Insured Children

Researchers emphasized the need for outcomes research in pediatric populations to elucidate the long-term effects of early and sustained psychotropic medication exposure.

Diethylstilbestrol Use in Pregnancy Linked to Multigenerational Neurodevelopmental Deficits

Diethylstilbestrol exposure during pregnancy is associated with multigenerational neurodevelopmental deficits in childhood, including ADHD.

Childhood-Onset Bipolar Disorder Associated With Impaired Family Functioning

Further investigation into the family-based mechanisms of childhood-onset bipolar disorder may assist in the development of future targeted, effective therapies.

Increase in Proportion of Births at Gestational Age 39 to 40 Weeks

From 2007 to 2015 there was a decrease in perinatal mortality at gestational ages 39 to 40 weeks

FDA Expands Use of MS Drug to Include Children

Gilenya is the first multiple sclerosis drug approved for children

Prevalence of Obese, Allergic Asthma Phenotypes Examined in US Children

The study authors examined data obtained from the 2007-2008 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) to determine the prevalence, risk factors, as well as the severity of asthma phenotypes.

No Clinical Benefit Seen for Bath Emollients in Childhood Eczema

POEM scores didn't meet minimal clinically important difference after adjustment for confounders

Preterm Infant Vitamin D Level Affects Calcium and Bone Health

Vitamin D levels in preterm infants are significantly correlated with optimal calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization of the femur.

Discerning Arterial Ischemic Stroke From Migraine in Pediatric Emergency Departments

Investigators examined presenting features of migraine vs arterial ischemic stroke in children presenting to the emergency department.

Unit-Dose Packaging Cuts Accidental Peds Opioid Exposures

Relative decrease in buprenorphine-naloxone exposure after transition to unit-dose packaging

Low Neighborhood Walkability Increases Risk of Asthma in Kids

Findings among children for both incident asthma and ongoing asthma.

Vitamin D Insufficiency Associated With Insulin Resistance Independent of Obesity in Children

Further clinical trials are needed to explore the potential beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation, via fortified foods and/or dietary supplements, on insulin resistance, and possibly on weight management.

Hypertension Increase in Children Based on 2017 AAP Guidelines

Increase in estimated population prevalence of elevated blood pressure from 11.8 to 14.2%.

Early Child Care Attendance and Asthma, Wheeze Risk: Is There a Link?

Early child care attendance increased the risk for wheeze in children ≤2 years of age but decreased the risk for asthma in children 3 to 5 years of age.

In Utero Caffeine Exposure Affects Early Childhood Weight

Maternal caffeine consumption tied to higher infant growth and childhood excess weight gain

Autism Linked to Prenatal Ultrasonography Depth

No statistically significant difference was observed in the number or duration of prenatal ultrasonographic scans across the entire pregnancy in children with later autism compared with controls with non-ASD developmental delay or typical development.

COPD Risk in Middle Age: The 3-Way Interaction of Asthma, Smoking, and Childhood Measles

A childhood measles infection may increase the risk for post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction in middle-age adults via its interaction with asthma and smoking.

Whole Body CT Not Linked to Reduced Mortality in Blunt Trauma

No significant difference in mortality for those undergoing whole body CT vs selective CT approach

Infant Use of Acid-Suppressants, Antibiotics Tied to Allergic Disease Development

Some allergic diseases associated with acid-suppressive, antibiotic intake in infants younger than 6 months old include food allergies, anaphylaxis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis.

In Utero Exposure to Multiple AEDs, Sodium Valproate Linked to Poor Educational Attainment in Childhood

In utero exposure to AEDs in combination, or sodium valproate alone, is associated with a significant decrease in attainment in national educational tests for 7-year-old children.

Obesity Can Negatively Affect Liver in Children As Young As 8

Increased adiposity in childhood may negatively impact liver function in children as young as 8 years old.

ADHD Frequently Occurs with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Co-occurrence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is common in children with autism spectrum disorder.

Maternal Probiotic, Fish Oil Intake Linked to Offspring Immune Development

Maternal diet may be correlated with certain autoimmune-associated diseases in offspring.

Pediatric irritability, depressive moods linked to suicidality in adolescence

Children with chronic irritability, including depressive or anxious moods, may be at an increased risk for suicidality or suicidal thoughts as adolescents.

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