Pediatrics Features Archive

Social Media and Adolescents: What Are the Health Risks?

Social Media and Adolescents: What Are the Health Risks?

Primary care providers should screen for depression and other health-related risks associated with the use of social media by adolescents.

Managing Pediatric Migraine: Current Therapies and Future Directions

Managing Pediatric Migraine: Current Therapies and Future Directions

Migraine is highly prevalent in children and adolescents, affecting almost 10% of children between 5 and 15 years old and 30% of adolescents between 15 and 19 years old.

Hans Asperger, Leading Autism Researcher, Tied to Nazi Child Euthanasia Program

Hans Asperger, Leading Autism Researcher, Tied to Nazi Child Euthanasia Program

Medical records of 48 children examined by Asperger show that he specifically called for 12 of the children to be transferred to the Am Spiegelgrund facility, the 'euthanasia' institution founded in 1940.

Stat consult: Head lice

Stat consult: Head lice

Approximately 6 to 12 million head lice cases are diagnosed in the United States per year, primarily affecting elementary school children.

Shaky, jerky eyes in an 8-week-old infant

Shaky, jerky eyes in an 8-week-old infant

An 8-week-old infant, presents to primary care with bilateral "shaky, jerky eyes."

Developmental trauma disorder: the effects of child abuse and neglect

Developmental trauma disorder: the effects of child abuse and neglect

Developmental trauma disorder, not yet officially recognized, results from child maltreatment and has many neurobiologic consequences.

Fever and sore throat in a child

Fever and sore throat in a child

A 4-year-old girl presents to the emergency department after 3 days of worsening sore throat with a fever.

Antenatal steroids may improve respiratory outcomes for late preterm births

Antenatal steroids may improve respiratory outcomes for late preterm births

The decreased rate of respiratory complications with betamethasone suggests antenatal steroids may improve the respiratory status in late preterm infants.

Interventions in childhood obesity

Interventions in childhood obesity

Effective use of research-based interventions and recommendations for overweight and obese children begin with initiating a conversation with the family.

Lead poisoning: Current practice guidelines

Lead poisoning: Current practice guidelines

An aging national infrastructure and paint in old homes increase the risk for lead poisoning and significant health-related problems in children and adults.

Managing concussion in primary care

Managing concussion in primary care

The incidence of concussion is increasing in children and adults, as is the demand for clinicians who can diagnose and treat both patient groups.

Assessing for rebound tenderness

Assessing for rebound tenderness

Pediatric clinicians can avoid causing pain by using an alternative technique to assess for rebound tenderness.

Applying ointment to a child

Applying ointment to a child

A clinician offers a tip for applying a small amount of nonsterile ointment.

Domestic minor sex trafficking: missed clinical opportunities

Domestic minor sex trafficking: missed clinical opportunities

An awareness of the risks and red flags among adolescent patients who are being trafficked for sex is key to intervention in this vulnerable population.

An unusual cause 
of respiratory distress in an infant

An unusual cause 
of respiratory distress in an infant

A congenital condition is found in an infant with respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms.

Obtaining a urine specimen in a child

Obtaining a urine specimen in a child

Turn a challenge into a game for your patient.

Infantile hemangiomas: benign lesions with potential complications

Infantile hemangiomas: benign lesions with potential complications

Although usually benign, some infantile hemangiomas have complications that are potentially fatal or physically debilitating if untreated.

Stat Consult: Acute sinusitis in children and adolescents

Stat Consult: Acute sinusitis in children and adolescents

Acute sinusitis is common, affecting 6% to 7% of children presenting with respiratory symptoms.

Vaccination, parents, and children

Vaccination, parents, and children

Vaccinations cannot be equated to antibiotics.

Painful red spot 
and fever in an infant

Painful red spot 
and fever in an infant

The child and her twin tested positive 
for influenza B infection one week earlier. The child's pulse, respirations, and blood pressure were within normal limits.

Antibiotics, urinary tract infections, and circumcision

Antibiotics, urinary tract infections, and circumcision

Find a foreskin-friendly urologist before agreeing to a child's circumcision.

A perioperative approach
 for pediatric asthma

A perioperative approach
 for pediatric asthma


Pediatrics patients with asthma who have to undergo surgery are at risk for complications.

Treatment for urinary tract 
infections in the uncircumcised
 male child

Treatment for urinary tract 
infections in the uncircumcised
 male child


Circumcision should be recommended for male, uncircumcised children with recurring UTIs.

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
 in obese adolescents

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
 in obese adolescents

Obese adolescents have an increased risk of slipped capital femoral epiphysis
 (SCFE).

UTI/Pyelonephritis

UTI/Pyelonephritis


A young girl with recurrent UTIs was diagnosed with a grade-3 VUR and mild hydronephrosis.

A tip for examining children

A tip for examining children

Diverting children's attention can help make exams go more smoothly.

Beach medicine pearls (and seashell lacerations)

Beach medicine pearls (and seashell lacerations)

Fun at the beach exposes children and adults to a number of hazards—some avoidable, such as sunburn, and some less so.

Offering a 'hand sandwich'
 to ticklish patients

Offering a 'hand sandwich'
 to ticklish patients

Using a simple mind trick can help clinicians handle ticklish patients during abdominal exams.

An adolescent with more than a cold

An adolescent with more than a cold


A 12-year-old child complains of having a slight sore throat and fatigue, but his mother becomes concerned when the child's symptoms worsen three days later.

Late consult ends in brain damage

Late consult ends in brain damage

A clinician fails to urgently obtain a neurologic 
referral for a baby with developmental delays.

Meningococcal meningitis: Managing outbreaks among adolescents and young adults

Meningococcal meningitis: Managing outbreaks among adolescents and young adults

Each year clusters of meningitis cases break out in the U.S. in the fall and winter months, particularly among adolescents and young adults.

Inpatient management of pregnancy and type 1 diabetes

Inpatient management of pregnancy and type 1 diabetes

A patient, aged 33 years, with a history of type 1 diabetes for 10 years presented to the hospital.

Xylitol: Low-cost treatment for dental caries, upper respiratory infections

Xylitol: Low-cost treatment for dental caries, upper respiratory infections

Xylitol is a primary sugar alcohol that can be used to help various dental problems as well as upper respiratory and ear infections.

Nonsterile glove use may reduce blood stream infections in premature infants

Nonsterile glove use may reduce blood stream infections in premature infants

Hand hygiene and glove use are simple measures that have been shown to reduce infections in cohort studies of preterm neonates and other pediatric populations.

Clinical prediction rule helps rule out abusive head trauma

Clinical prediction rule helps rule out abusive head trauma

Misdiagnosing abuse can have tragic consequences, as children returned to abusive situations may experience additional abuse or even death.

Abdominal cramping, foreign body in 
the stool of a child

Abdominal cramping, foreign body in 
the stool of a child

A child presents to the emergency department with a seven-inch live 
worm in his stool.

'Addicted' babies are misclassified

'Addicted' babies are misclassified 


Referring to infants as "addicted" to opiates is clinically incorrect and creates stigma surrounding treatment.

When abdominal pain is not appendicitis

When abdominal pain is not appendicitis

Clinicians might need to consider an uncommon array of causes when faced with a pediatric patient suffering from abdominal ailments.

Breaking the silence about congenital cytomegalovirus

Breaking the silence about congenital cytomegalovirus

Congenital cytomegalovirus is a very common cause of birth defects, yet many primary-care providers are not well-informed about this infection.

Exam brings trouble for 
school nurse

Exam brings trouble for 
school nurse

A visual check of a 
student was deemed 
an "unreasonable 
search" under the 
Fourth Amendment.

Adolescent risk-taking: salt and ice challenge

Adolescent risk-taking: salt and ice challenge

Young people might not understand the health consequences of participating in stunts that help them feel like part of the crowd.

Corticosteroid inhalers may reduce growth in kids

Corticosteroid inhalers may reduce growth in kids

Regular use of inhaled corticosteroids may cause a small reduction in height or a dose-dependent reduction in growth velocity.

Antidepressants and suicide risk

Antidepressants and suicide risk


Over the last two decades, the prescribing of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) has decreased due to their unfavorable side-effect profile.

Diagnosing left eye retinoblastoma in an uninsured child

Diagnosing left eye retinoblastoma in an uninsured child

Taking the time to notice an outward gaze in the left eye, this nurse practitioner helped save a child.

Motivational interviewing helped a teen practice safe sex

Motivational interviewing helped a teen practice safe sex

Sometimes patients just need to hear their own stories out loud to help make better choices.

Addressing teen pregnancy in a school-based health center

Addressing teen pregnancy in a school-based health center

A new program that focused on education both male and female patients about contraception decreased pregnancy rates in an inner-city school.

Meeting the nutritional needs of toddlers

Meeting the nutritional needs of toddlers

Optimal nutrition in early childhood supports growth and development and can encourage lifelong healthy eating habits.

Help children keep asthma at bay

Help children keep asthma at bay

Begin to impart asthma information to young patients and/or their caregivers as early as possible.

Explaining loss of consciousness

Explaining loss of consciousness

Antibiotics may suffice in appendicitis

Antibiotics may suffice in appendicitis

More than 80,000 children undergo appendectomies each year.

Otitis treatment in a child with suspected penicillin allergy

Otitis treatment in a child with suspected penicillin allergy

A patient was diagnosed with a serum sickness-like reaction in response to antibiotics.

A child's cough: common presentations and causes

A child's cough: common presentations and causes

Clinicians who recognize various types of pediatric coughs will be better able to identify serious underlying conditions in the young patient.

Written reminder of risky sex

Written reminder of risky sex

Providing patients with a copy of their lab reports emphasizes the seriousness of STDs.

Leave children in stitches rather than tears

Leave children in stitches rather than tears

Involving a child in suturing can subdue perceived pain.

When is it okay to examine a child alone?

When is it okay to examine a child alone?

How do you ask a parent to leave in a diplomatic way when examining a pediatric patient?

Olive oil for a flaky scalp

Olive oil for a flaky scalp

Recommend this simple home treatment for kids with a dry, flaky scalp.

Gel reduces NICU hypoglycemia
 admissions

Gel reduces NICU hypoglycemia
 admissions

Buccal dextrose gel minimizes the need for unnecessary interventions that separate newborns with low blood glucose levels from their mothers.

Involve parents when 
suturing a child

Involve parents when 
suturing a child


Enlisting a parent's help can provide comfort without a scary needle or painful injection.

Ultrasound for unsuccessful lumbar puncture?

Ultrasound for unsuccessful lumbar puncture?

How old is too old for ultrasound when other modalities don't work?

The challenges of identifying 
Prader-Willi syndrome

The challenges of identifying 
Prader-Willi syndrome

Children with this condition develop an insatiable appetite that leads to obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and behavioral problems when not treated.

Blow away your pediatric patients

Blow away your pediatric patients


Tips for when you perform the respiratory portion of a pediatric examination.

Be specific when taking an 
adolescent's sexual history

Be specific when taking an 
adolescent's sexual history


Specific questions will elicit more useful information about a teenager's sexual history.

Reliable sources of safety information on vitamins and supplements

Reliable sources of safety information on vitamins and supplements

Where is the best place to look up information on vitamins and supplements for children?

Identifying and addressing infant allergy to cow's milk protein

Identifying and addressing infant allergy to cow's milk protein

Cow's milk protein allergy is relatively common during the first year of life. Unfortunately, the condition is easily missed or mislabeled.

Make pediatric exams all fun and games

Make pediatric exams all fun and games

A tip for getting children to open up during medical exams.

An electrocution victim overcomes a poor prognosis

An electrocution victim overcomes a poor prognosis

A nurse's antics prompt an unexpected recovery in a pediatric patient, who sustained injuries after riding his bike over a downed power line.

Emergency surgery after a tonsillectomy

Emergency surgery after a tonsillectomy

A nurse anesthetist acts quickly when a child begins coughing up copious amounts of blood after a routine procedure.

Strawberry tongue cues provider to rare condition

Strawberry tongue cues provider to rare condition

'You don't have to remember it all, just enough to know you need to find out the rest.'

Safety first in infant feeding

Safety first in infant feeding

Counseling parents on the avoidance of feeding-associated infections.

Adolescent catch-up immunization schedule

Adolescent catch-up immunization schedule

Up-to-date CDC recommendations for patients aged 4 months through 18 years who start late or are more than one month behind on immunizations.

Childhood immunization schedule

Childhood immunization schedule

Current CDC immunization schedule and footnotes for vaccinating children aged 0 through 18 years.

Traumatic brain injury in youth athletes

Traumatic brain injury in youth athletes

Accurate identification, assessment and evaluation of concussions will enable clinicians to determine when it is safe for young athletes to return to competition.

A tip for palpating ticklish children

A tip for palpating ticklish children

Abdominal exams can be ticklish for kids, but a simple trick can make it easier.

PPI ups risks without improving asthma control in kids with GER

PPI ups risks without improving asthma control in kids with GER

Lansoprazole was associated with higher rates of upper respiratory infection, sore throat and bronchitis and no effect on asthma control.

A case study of nocturnal enuresis

A case study of nocturnal enuresis

A healthy and thriving boy aged 8 years, has never been able to achieve complete nighttime dryness since being potty trained at age 3 years.

Simple treatment for pediatric bedwetting

Simple treatment for pediatric bedwetting

When treating a young patient for monosymptomatic enuresis, be sure to assess the physical, emotional, and developmental maturity of the child.

The solution to swimmer's ear

The solution to swimmer's ear

A homemade solution helps keep swimmer's ear at bay.

Auscultating a young patient

Auscultating a young patient

It is often difficult to get young patients to take deep breaths. This simple penlight trick can help.

ADHD Medication Chart

ADHD Medication Chart

A chart of medications available to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

Magic hands to soothe a restless child

Magic hands to soothe a restless child

A trick to help pediatric patients sit still during routine exams.

Diagnosing neutropenia

Diagnosing neutropenia

What constitutes a reasonable workup for neutropenia in an otherwise healthy young person?

Teen suicide prompts an investigation

Teen suicide prompts an investigation

A clinician prescribes 
an antidepressant to a 
young woman without immediate follow-up.

Can pediatric neuroenhancement be justified?

Can pediatric neuroenhancement be justified?

Proponents regard neuroenhancements as "study aids," with potentially positive academic benefits. Opponents cite lack of safety and efficacy evidence and serious risks.

Vaccinations to 
protect adolescents

Vaccinations to 
protect adolescents

Often at increased risk for disease transmission, many teens and preteens
 do not receive the recommended immunizations in a timely manner.

A little carbonation helps the medicine go down

A little carbonation helps the medicine go down

Soda water or seltzer can help mask the flavor of bad-tasting medicine.

When mixing formula, prepare only as directed

When mixing formula, prepare only as directed

How precisely must one follow the manufacturer's directions with regard to the amount of powder and water used in preparing infant formula?

Surfactant cuts ventilation needs in preterm infants

Surfactant cuts ventilation needs in preterm infants

Minimally invasive surfactant treatment reduces need for ventilation in spontaneously breathing preterm infants requiring increased oxygen.

Intermittent budesonide as effective as daily Tx for asthma

Intermittent budesonide as effective as daily Tx for asthma

Budesonide given only during acute respiratory illness may prevent asthma as effectively as daily budesonide in young children with a history of wheezing.

What is BPA and how harmful is it to kids?

What is BPA and how harmful is it to kids?

Primarily used in food and drink packaging, ingestion of bisphenol A has recently been linked to obesity, diabetes, and reproductive disorders.

Underlying problems of scoliosis

Underlying problems of scoliosis

A girl with scoliosis returns to the clinic complaining of ankle pain.

A fun way to rehydrate children

A fun way to rehydrate children

Tips for improving the taste of oral electrolyte solution.

Case Report: High-Dose Methylphenidate for Adult ADHD

Case Report: High-Dose Methylphenidate for Adult ADHD

Long-acting ADHD medications improve adherence and demonstrate efficacy similar to that of immediate-release dose formulations.

Updated standards for CCHD screening: Pulse-oximetry pearls and statewide protocols, Part 3

Updated standards for CCHD screening: Pulse-oximetry pearls and statewide protocols, Part 3

Improved pulse-oximetry standards translate into more sensitive critical congenital heart disease screening.

Managing infants with bronchiolitis

Managing infants with bronchiolitis

The symptoms of this common lung infection usually dissipate after a week, but some cases can become severe and require hospitalization.

CCHD screening guidelines: Implementation of standardized protocols, Part 2

CCHD screening guidelines: Implementation of standardized protocols, Part 2

Taking the pulse of neonatal screening for critical congenital heart disease.

Sudden neurologic symptom onset 
in an adolescent

Sudden neurologic symptom onset 
in an adolescent

Dizziness, photophobia, nausea and 
an unsteady gait develop following a 
routine annual check up.

File away anxiety over trimming infant fingernails

File away anxiety over trimming infant fingernails

Many parents are anxious about cutting their infant's fingernails.

Improve eustachian tube dysfunction with nasal spray

Improve eustachian tube dysfunction with nasal spray

A 12-hour nasal decongestant spray can help provide relief for kids with eustachian tube dysfunction.

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