Pulmonology News Archive

Rifampin Similar to Isoniazid for Preventing Active Tuberculosis

Rifampin has significantly higher rate of treatment completion, fewer drug-related adverse events.

Collagen Degradation, Formation Elevated in Patients With Exacerbated COPD

Serologically assessed collagen remodeling plays a key role in the severity of COPD, as determined by airflow limitation and dyspnea, as well as in disease outcomes.

CDC: 'Tips' Campaign Has Helped a Number of Smokers Quit

More than 9 million smokers have attempted to quit because of Tips from Former Smokers Campaign.

Wildfire Smoke Causes Health Risks

Agency offers steps to minimize exposure, particularly for those with chronic conditions.

FDA: Zephyr Endobronchial Valve Approved for Severe Emphysema

Valve has been approved after review of data from trial involving 190 patients with emphysema

Type 2 Diabetes Does Not Affect Pneumonia Incidence, Outcomes After Stroke

Investigators examined the incidence and outcomes of pneumonia in patients with acute ischemic stroke and type 2 diabetes.

COPD End-of-Life Management Strategies: Use Could Be Expanded

The use of formal palliative care services among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increased by 1% per year, going from 5.3% in 2004 to 14.3% in 2014.

Tiotropium Once-Daily Plus ICS Maintenance May Improve Airflow Obstruction in Adult Asthma

Researchers from the University of Rochester identified improvement in pulmonary function in symptomatic adult patients with asthma treated with once-daily tiotropium.

Double Lung Transplantation Improves Survival in Interstitial Pulmonary Fibrosis

Double lung transplantation appears to offer superior survival outcomes to single lung transplantation in patients with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis who are younger than 70 years.

CD63 Ratio May Predict Allergic Reaction Severity in Peanut Food Challenge

Researchers developed a predictive algorithm to identify individuals with a higher risk for severe reactions to the standardized peanut oral food challenge.

Adenoid, Tonsil Removal May Affect Later Respiratory Risks

Surgeries by age 9 associated with higher long-term risks of respiratory, infectious, allergic diseases

Respiratory Pathogens May Increase Treatment Failure Risk in Asthma

Increased risk of treatment failure for children with asthma exacerbations presenting to the ER.

AAFP Joins Call on FDA to Reduce Nicotine Content in Cigarettes

AAFP and other signatories also call on FDA to apply the proposal to other combustible tobacco products

Vitamin D Supplements May Reduce Recurrent Wheezing in Preterm Black Infants

In black infants who were born preterm, vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk for recurrent wheezing.

Lung Cancer Incidence Higher for Young Women Than Young Men

Crossover in sex-specific rates among US non-Hispanic whites born since 1965

PAH Risk, Mortality Increased by Disturbances in Male Sex Hormones

Men with higher estradiol and estradiol/testosterone levels had an increased risk for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Hand Grip Strength Associated With All-Cause Mortality, Other Adverse Outcomes

Grip strength is strongly and inversely associated with all-cause mortality and incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, COPD, all cancer, and subtypes of cancer, with associations being modestly stronger in the younger age groups.

Prevalence of Obese, Allergic Asthma Phenotypes Examined in US Children

The study authors examined data obtained from the 2007-2008 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) to determine the prevalence, risk factors, as well as the severity of asthma phenotypes.

Case Study: Cardiovascular Complications of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

A 55-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease reports having some mild chest pain.

Low Neighborhood Walkability Increases Risk of Asthma in Kids

Findings among children for both incident asthma and ongoing asthma.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Can Be Effectively Managed in Primary Care

Findings based on a portable monitor and use of a semi-automatic treatment algorithm

Early Child Care Attendance and Asthma, Wheeze Risk: Is There a Link?

Early child care attendance increased the risk for wheeze in children ≤2 years of age but decreased the risk for asthma in children 3 to 5 years of age.

COPD Risk in Middle Age: The 3-Way Interaction of Asthma, Smoking, and Childhood Measles

A childhood measles infection may increase the risk for post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction in middle-age adults via its interaction with asthma and smoking.

Pediatric Asthma Unaffected by 5-fold Increased Inhaled Glucocorticoid Dose

Increasing inhaled glucocorticoid doses at initial signs of exacerbating asthma may not be effective.

High-Flow Oxygen Treatment Better for Infants with Bronchiolitis Than Standard Therapy

Compared with standard oxygen therapy, high-flow treatments were better for infants with bronchiolotis.

Assessing LABA, LAMA treatments for persistent asthma control

Single maintenance and reliever therapy and long-acting muscarinic antagonists are linked to better management of asthma in patients with uncontrolled, persistent asthma.

Smoking Screening Beneficial in Pediatric Pulmonology Clinics

Adaption of processes in pediatric pulmonology clinics that may eliminate tobacco use and exposure will help with decreasing medical expenses and hospital admissions for illnesses that can be triggered from smoke exposure.

Physical fitness in adolescence impacts adult lung performance

Involvement in aerobic fitness activities helps adolescents and children increase lung volume as adults but does not improve airway caliber.

Varicose veins associated with increased risk of deep venous thrombosis

There is a significant association between varicose veins and an increased risk for deep venous thrombosis and possible associations with pulmonary embolism and peripheral artery disease, though results are still unclear.

Asthma, allergic rhinitis prevalence with long-term opioid use

Patients with opioid dependence or abuse may exhibit a higher prevalence of asthma compared with the general population.

Prenatal vitamin D may increase pediatric allergic rhinitis risk

Prenatal vitamin D is associated with an increased risk for allergic rhinitis in children born to African American women, but not white women.

Inhaler use in asthma and COPD: Patient characteristics compared

Researchers examined real-world characteristics of patients receiving albuterol multidose dry powder inhaler or short-acting β2 agonists with short-acting β2 agonists for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Skin hypersensitivity in infants decreased with yogurt consumption

When testing for sensitivity to histamine, larger swelling sizes were recorded for infants with eczema and atopic dermatitis compared with infants without those conditions.

Dupilumab treatment in moderate to severe atopic dermatitis

Researchers assessed whether the administration of dupilumab improves signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis in patients with or without comorbid asthma.

Allergic disease risk in children may increase with antibiotic exposure

Children who are exposed to antibiotics earlier in life may have an increased risk for allergic diseases, including asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis.

Intranasal corticosteroid treatment confirmed for nasal congestion with seasonal allergic rhinitis

Intranasal corticosteroids are the current guideline-preferred treatment recommendation for nasal congestion.

Sex-based young adult asthma risks associated with acetaminophen use

Data from the Isle of Wight birth cohort study and the Kuwait University Allergy cross-sectional study were used to assess self-reported acetaminophen use and asthma diagnosis.

Race-dependent protective effect of maternal vitamin D on childhood asthma

A cohort from the CANDLE study was assessed to determine if race plays a role in the protective effect of maternal vitamin D levels on childhood asthma.

Over 7% of pregnant women smoked in 2016

Of the women who gave birth in 2016, over 7% smoked cigarettes while pregnant.

Cardiac surgery during flu season linked to ARDS

Undergoing cardiac surgery during the influenza season is associated with increased likelihood of development of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Opioid use increases risk of invasive pneumococcal disease

The risk of invasive pneumococcal disease is correlated with the prescription opioid use.

E-cigarettes may lead youth to start smoking, adults to stop: NASEM report

A congressionally mandated report has found that e-cigarettes are likely to be far less harmful than conventional cigarettes, although they are not without health risks.

Evidence of marijuana's effect on cardiovascular events still scarce

Future studies may help to assess the relation between chronic marijuana use and cardiovascular risks.

New long-acting bronchodilator use linked to CV risk in COPD patients

Use of long-acting bronchodilators is linked to cardiovascular risks in patients with COPD.

Obesity in preschoolers leads to exacerbated asthma

Overweight/obese preschools have greater asthma symptoms than normal-weight children when untreated.

Air pollution increases mortality risk in older adults

Exposure to surrounding air pollutants and warm season ozone are linked to increased risk of death.

FDA removes Boxed Warning from select asthma, COPD medications

New evidence regarding safety is spurring the US FDA to remove a Boxed Warning from certain inhaled medications used to treat asthma and COPD.

Steady rate of marijuana use associated with decline in cigarette, alcohol use in adolescents

Adolescent marijuana prevalence today would be at or near record highs if cigarette use had not declined since 2005.

Proposed pneumonia vaccine provides universal pneumococcal disease prevention

A pneumonia vaccine under development provides the most comprehensive coverage to date and alleviates antimicrobial concerns.

Treatment guidelines updated for coughing associated with common cold

There has been little change in the treatment recommendations for cough due to the common cold since publication of guidelines in 2006.

Combination antibiotic treatment beneficial for community-acquired pneumonia

A combination antibiotic regimen with a macrolide was shown to improve short- and long-term outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

Clinical tool developed to determine pediatric community-acquired pneumonia severity

Researchers developed a clinical tool to predict prolonged hospital stays in patients with pediatric community-acquired pneumonia.

Half of adults with work-related asthma receive pneumococcal vaccination

The researchers found that 42% of the estimated 12 million ever-employed adults with current asthma had received a pneumococcal vaccine.

GERD may be associated with long-term risk of pneumonia

Incidence of pneumonia was higher among patients with GERD compared with matched controls.

Once-daily single-inhaler triple therapy better for lung function in COPD

Results support the benefits of single-inhaler triple therapy compared with inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist therapy in patients with advanced COPD.

Smoking may be a risk factor for psoriasis

Researchers observed a positive correlation between the amount and duration of smoking and the occurrence of psoriasis.

Asthma associated with later development of inflammatory bowel disease

Asthma was associated with Crohn's disease and with early- and late-onset ulcerative colitis.

Sepsis, pneumonia lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease in men

Men who are admitted to the hospital with a serious infection may have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the years immediately following the infection.

Hypoxia, increased work of breathing outweigh tachypnea, auscultatory findings in diagnosing pneumonia

No single clinical observation reliably differentiates pneumonia from other causes of respiratory illness in children.

Vitamin B supplements not chemopreventive for lung cancer

Vitamin B supplements are not chemopreventive and may increase cancer risk in men.

Oral corticosteroids not effective for lower respiratory tract infection

No significant effects were found from oral corticosteroid use for acute lower respiratory tract infection in adults without asthma.

Tips for avoiding pneumonia in patients with COPD

The COPD Foundation has released tips for patients with COPD to avoid pneumonia and exacerbations.

Occupational pesticide exposure linked to fixed airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis

Results show that exposure to pesticides and herbicides is associated with fixed airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis.

Treating acute COPD exacerbations with prednisone and doxycycline

Researchers found that doxycycline plus prednisone did not prolong the time between exacerbations in patients with COPD.

VZV-related community-acquired pneumonia linked to morbidity, mortality

The hospital and ICU mortality rates of critically ill patients with VZV-CAP were 24% and 17%, respectively.

Sleep disorders may increase risk for Alzheimer's disease

Obstructive sleep apnea and sleep-disordered breathing are associated with amyloid deposition.

Chest CT provides additional insight in COPD assessment

A chest CT can provide additional information on comorbidities, including coronary artery disease and osteoporosis.

WHO updates Essential Medicines List, recommendations for antibiotics

The update includes 30 new medicines for adults and 25 for children and groups antibiotics into 3 distinct categories.

Higher childhood intelligence linked to lower mortality risk

Researchers sought to examine the link between intelligence scores during childhood and leading causes of death during the life course.

Social support boosts rehabilitation in adult COPD patients

Patients are more likely to exercise and participate in pulmonary rehabilitation if they live with others and have a caregiver.

Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk may decrease with LABA/LAMA in COPD

LABA/LAMA is associated with a similar or lower risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular adverse events compared to treatment with LABA/inhaled corticosteroid.

Opioid use increases risk of cardiac events in older COPD patients

Users of opioid-only agents had significantly increased rates of emergency room visits and hospitalizations for ischemic heart disease and IHD-related mortality.

Beta-blocker therapy may reduce exacerbations in moderate-to-severe COPD

Cardiac geometry demonstrated by non-contrast computerized tomography scan can predict which patients will respond to β-blocker therapy with a reduction in exacerbation frequency.

Chlorhexidine oral rinse solution ineffective for aspiration pneumonia

Study findings suggest that nursing home residents should receive more guidance in using strategies to prevent aspiration during eating and drinking.

Home noninvasive ventilation with oxygen therapy effective for COPD and hypercapnia

Adding home noninvasive ventilation to home oxygen therapy was effective in patients with persistent hypercapnia following an acute exacerbation of COPD.

NIH creates COPD National Action Plan

The national action plan released by the NHLBI aims to reduce the burden of COPD through collaboration with federal agencies, patients, advocates, and researchers.

Extrafine triple therapy may reduce rate of COPD exacerbations

The TRINITY study found that triple therapy significantly reduced the rate of COPD exacerbations.

Mortality decreasing for patients hospitalized with COPD in the US

The annual number of patients who died from COPD while in the hospital decreased 62% from 2005 to 2014.

First antibiotic prescription ineffective in 25% of pneumonia cases

About 1 in 4 adult patients with pneumonia do not respond to initial prescription of antibiotic treatment.

Surgical pulmonary embolectomy for thrombus distribution is feasible, effective

Surgical pulmonary embolectomy for peripheral distribution of thrombus demonstrated positive outcomes in patients with either CPE or PPE.

Eosinophilic COPD vs COPD with asthma: comparing clinical characteristics

Distinct differences occur between eosinophilic COPD and COPD patients with asthma.

Pulmonary hyperinflation linked to larger pulmonary artery in COPD

Increased residual volume is associated with a larger pulmonary artery in patients with COPD.

Asthma attacks can be triggered by thunderstorms

A 2016 thunderstorm asthma outbreak in Australia occurred when high grass pollen concentrations were dispersed by strong winds.

Inhaled corticosteroid use linked to increased pneumonia risk in asthma patients

The use of inhaled corticosteroids is associated with an increased risk of pneumonia in asthma patients.

Some antidiabetic agents may increase pneumonia risk in type 2 diabetes

Compared with current use of metformin + sulfonylurea, the use of thiazolidinediones + metformin was associated with an increased risk of community-acquired pneumonia.

Benzodiazepines may increase risk of pneumonia in Alzheimer disease

Clinicians should consider risk of pneumonia when weighing the benefits and risks of benzodiazepines in patients with Alzheimer disease.

Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio may predict mortality in community-acquired pneumonia

All participants with a neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio greater than 28.3 died within 30 days.

Managing elderly patients with COPD through empowerment

Use of the empowerment approach is necessary for health promotion in older patients with COPD, but little attention has been paid to the dimensions of empowerment in COPD management.

Utibron Neohaler available for long-term treatment of COPD

Utibron Neohaler inhalation powder is indicated for the long-term maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with COPD.

Antidepressant serum levels may be lower in cigarette smokers

Serum concentration levels of several antidepressants were lower in cigarette smokers compared with nonsmokers.

Managing COPD exacerbations: A new clinical guideline

The European Respiratory Society and the American Thoracic Society have released a guideline for the treatment of patients with COPD exacerbations.

PCV10 vaccine decreases pneumonia rate in children

PCV10 decreases rate of pneumonia among vaccine-eligible children and older, unvaccinated children.

High cardiac troponin levels may predict mortality in community-acquired pneumonia

Elevated cardiac troponin T is also strongly prognostic of cardiac mortality observed in association with community-acquired pneumonia.

Antibiotic prescribing in primary care varies for community-acquired pneumonia

Factors that contribute to antibiotic choice for CAP include patient age, previous antibiotic receipt, and private insurance.

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine reduces Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia

Researchers observed a 95.3% reduction of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia after implementation of routine immunization with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

Statins may reduce pulmonary artery pressure in COPD patients

A daily dose of atorvastatin could reduce pulmonary artery pressure among patients with COPD.

Early use of noninvasive techniques for clearing respiratory secretions in COPD

A novel technique involving NPPV reduced the risks of nosocomial infection, requirement for intubation, and hospital mortality in patients with COPD.

ICU may be overused for some patients with heart or lung disease

Researchers also observed no difference in 30-day mortality rates between patients in the ICU and those who received regular inpatient care in another hospital unit.

Global tobacco control treaty reduced worldwide smoking rates

Countries committed to introducing policies such as high tobacco taxes and smoke-free public spaces.

Low vitamin E in pregnant women increases asthma risk in offspring

Research presented at the AAAAI Annual Meeting suggests a link between maternal vitamin E levels and childhood asthma development.

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