Pulmonology News Archive

Vitamin D Supplementation Can Help Cut COPD Exacerbations

Review shows supplementation only effective for baseline vitamin D levels 25 nmol/L.

Tuberculosis Detection May Be Affected by Blood Draw Method

Tuberculosis screening results may differ depending on blood draw methods.

Croup Symptoms, Hospital Readmissions Reduced With Glucocorticoids

Children with croup who were given glucocorticoids had reduced symptoms at 2 through 24 hours.

Influenza Seroconversion Risk Factors in Adults Hospitalized for Pneumonia

Adults hospitalized for pneumonia who received an influenza vaccination during their stay were less likely to seroconvert if they had diabetes, bacterial detection, baseline seropositive titers for influenza B, or influenza vaccination in the previous season.

Prescription Opioids Up Pneumonia Risk in Patients With, Without HIV

Risk greatest with higher-dose opioids and opioids with immunosuppressive properties.

Child Pneumonia Rate Dropped Globally From 2000 to 2015

Number of clinical pneumonia episodes in children 5 years reduced 22% in developing countries.

Smoked vs Vaporized Cannabis: Acute Effects in Infrequent Users

Inhaling a 25 mg dose of vaporized cannabis with 10 mg of THC produced pronounced drug effects in healthy adults who were infrequent users of cannabis.

Cognitive Therapy Helps Reduce Anxiety in COPD Patients

Cognitive behavioral therapy delivered by respiratory nurses is associated with reduced anxiety symptoms and is cost-effective for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

More US Teens Are Vaping, but Use of Opioids, Alcohol Falling

Vaping among American teenagers increased dramatically in 2018, with nearly 2 of every 5 high school seniors reporting they had tried an electronic cigarette during the past year.

FDA: Some E-Cigarette Liquids Contain Erectile Dysfunction Meds

Sildenafil and tadalafil not approved to be sold over the counter and are being sold illegally.

Omalizumab Shows Promise as Rescue Therapy in Status Asthmaticus

Omalizumab rescue therapy produced rapid results in a patient with refractory status asthmaticus.

Smoking Linked to Cognitive Dysfunction in Fibromyalgia

In adjusted analysis, smoking tied to worse symptom severity, sleep problems, anxiety, depression.

COPD Tied to Obesity in Male, Female Never-Smokers

Strong dose-response relationship seen in never-smokers aged 50 and older.

Endobronchial Valve Therapy: A Nonsurgical Option for Advanced Emphysema

Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction with valve replacement shows the most promise for improving lung function, exercise tolerance, and quality of life in patients with advanced emphysema.

Insurance Gaps May Increase Emergency Department Visits in Children With Asthma

Gaps in insurance coverage increased the odds of asthma-related emergency department intervention or hospitalization and exacerbations.

Vitamin D Levels Linked to Cardiorespiratory Fitness

Individuals in top quartile of vitamin D levels have significantly higher CRF than those in lowest quartile.

Youth Smoking Decline Mirrors Rise in Vaping Popularity

Large rise in youth vaping, decline in past 30-day smoking prevalence accelerated around 2014.

Clinical Decision Support System Ups Outpatient PE Management

Home discharge rate increased at intervention sites; no increase in return visits, adverse outcomes.

Smoke-Free Policies Linked to Lower Systolic Blood Pressure

Lower systolic BP found for those living in areas with public smoke-free policies.

Patients Hospitalized for COPD Rarely Receive Pulmonary Rehab

Elderly, those living 10 miles from facility, those with lower SES less likely to receive pulmonary rehab.

Shared Decision Making in Asthma Improves With Use of Facilitator-Led Education

Facilitator-led sites had a higher percentage of patients who reported equal participation with their provider in making asthma treatment decisions vs the lunch-and-learn sites.

CHEST Guidelines for Clinical Diagnosis of Pertussis-Associated Cough

In adult patients, pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were generated for 4 clinical features: paroxysmal cough, posttussive vomiting, inspiratory whoop, and absence of fever.

FDA to Ban Most Flavored Electronic Cigarettes

Details of the ban expected to be announced next week.

Showerhead Mycobacteria Abundant in Regional 'Hot Spots'

These areas often overlap with regions of prevalent nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease.

Models Project 79% Drop in Lung CA Mortality by 2065

Annual number of deaths expected to continue to decrease despite growth, aging of US population.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors May Increase Lung Cancer Risk

The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer compared with angiotensin receptor blockers.

New CHEST Guideline for Acute Cough Suspicious of Pneumonia or Influenza

The CHEST Expert Cough Panel agreed on cough, dyspnea, pleural pain, sweating, shivers, aches, temperature of ≥38°C, tachypnea, and new and localizing chest examination signs as clinical symptoms as criteria suggestive of pneumonia in outpatient adults.

Lung Function Improved With Dupilumab in Adolescents With Asthma

Adolescents with asthma treated with dupilumab experienced significant improvements in FEV1 compared with placebo.

Severe Eosinophilic Asthma Effectively Managed With Benralizumab

Benralizumab was associated with a significant reduction in annual asthma exacerbation rates.

Pirfenidone May Be Effective for Improving Exercise Capacity, Dyspnea in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

When treated with pirfenidone, patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis experienced significant improvements in 6-minute walking distance and University of California San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire scores.

Montelukast Plus Levocetirizine vs Monotherapy in Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis

Montelukast plus levocetirizine demonstrated a significant reduction in mean daytime nasal symptom scores compared with montelukast monotherapy.

Metered Dose Inhaler Errors Affect Many With COPD and Asthma

The most common error related to the use of metered dose inhalers was the failure to attach the inhaler to a spacer.

Gap Found in Pneumoccal Vaccine Recommendations Among Primary Care Clinicians

While primary care physicians overwhelmingly recommend pneumococcal vaccines, there is a gap in their knowledge of how to implement related vaccine recommendations.

Tobacco Use Remains Leading Modifiable Cause of Cancer

Tobacco use remains the leading modifiable cause of cancer and should be a priority for cancer control.

Asthma Risk in Infants Predicted by Total Serum Bilirubin

Total serum bilirubin levels of 9 to 11.9 mg/dL, 12 to 14.9 mg/dL, and 15 to 17.9 mg/dL were associated with significantly greater risks for asthma in infants.

Triple Combo Regimens May Address Cause of Cystic Fibrosis

Promising results for VX-659-, VX-445-tezacaftor-ivacaftor for cystic fibrosis with mutations in CFTR.

Asthma May Increase Obesity Risk Later in Childhood

Early-onset asthma and wheezing may contribute to an increased risk of developing obesity later in childhood.

Long-Term Benzodiazepines Do Not Increase Mortality in COPD, PTSD

For patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder, long-term benzodiazepine use is not associated with mortality, but there is an association for short-term benzodiazepine use.

Pneumococcal H Influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine Effective in Children

The burden of childhood and infant pneumonia can be effectively reduced through the use of the pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine.

Late-Onset Epilepsy Linked to APOE ε4, Smoking, Diabetes

The risk for late-onset epilepsy was lower in patients with higher physical activity levels and moderate alcohol intake.

Fluoroquinolones May Aid in Reducing Mortality in Community-Acquired Pneumonia

For patients with CAP, antibiotic regimens including a fluoroquinolone may reduce mortality risk by 1-2% compared to beta-lactams and cephalosporins alone.

Anti-Reflux Surgery Promising in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

In phase 2 study, surgery for abnormal acid GER in IPF patients was safe, well-tolerated.

Discrimination Concern in Adolescents Linked to Increased Substance Use

Teens whose concern over societal discrimination grew between 2016 and 2017 increased their cigarette and marijuana use.

Pest Allergies in Urban Adolescents Exacerbate Poorly Controlled Asthma

Cockroach and mouse allergies were most often associated with poorly controlled asthma and exacerbations in urban adolescents.

PUFAs Inversely Associated With Asthma in Preschool Children

Total omega-3 and omega-6 plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids relative abundances were significantly inversely correlated with asthma/recurrent wheeze and allergic sensitization.

Smoking Promotes Disease Progression in Multiple Sclerosis

Investigators examined the effects of smoking on respiratory symptoms and functional levels in patients with multiple sclerosis.

Low Vitamin D Levels Linked to Interstitial Lung Disease

Vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with subclinical interstitial lung disease and its progression.

Relationship Between Atopic Disorders May Be Age Dependent

Although allergic sensitization and hay fever rates increased as children grew older, the rates of asthma dropped.

EPA Plan Will Maintain Carbon Emissions From Power Plants

Inadequate regulation of carbon pollution will likely have current, future consequences for human health.

No Evidence for Milk Increasing Mucus Production From Lungs

Patients perceive swallowing difficulty from thickness of saliva, but no real increase in mucus.

Ambient Particulate Matter Linked to Emergency Asthma Care

Increase in asthma hospital visits with increasing ambient particulate matter in San Luis Valley.

Addition of High-Dose Guaifenesin Benefits Patient With Chronic Respiratory Conditions

According to the report, the patient complained of a non-productive cough, accumulation of mucus, and post-nasal drip and requested a thorough assessment of her medical conditions.

Small Reduction in Lung Function With Treatment De-Escalation in COPD

No difference in exacerbations with indacaterol/glycopyrronium for non-frequently exacerbating COPD.

FDA Gets Tough on Juul, Other Electronic Cigarette Makers

More than 1200 warning letters and fines have been sent to retailers and major e-cigarette manufacturers.

Adverse Effects of Marijuana Use in Pregnancy: Current Research Is Questionable at Best

Many women are unconvinced of the potential harmful effects of marijuana use in pregnancy due to the lack of available evidence.

Chest Radiograph Effective for Excluding Pediatric Pneumonia

CXR had negative predictive value of 98.8% in children evaluated for suspected pneumonia.

New Bronchoscopic Option Used for Severe Emphysema

First bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using endobronchial valve performed at Temple University.

Bigger Cut in Smoke Exposure for Immediate Nicotine Reduction

Smokers with immediate vs gradual reduction have significantly lower levels of smoke exposure.

Prevalence of Marijuana Use Among US Adults in Past Year

Researchers found that 14.6 percent of adults reported marijuana use in the past year and 8.7 percent reported use in the past 30 days.

Long-Term PPI Use Linked to Pneumonia Risk in Older Adults

Rate of incident pneumonia increased in second year after initiating treatment with proton pump inhibitors.

Wildfire Smoke Causing Poor Air Quality in US Pacific Northwest

Air pollution advisories, air quality alerts issued for Washington, Oregon.

Food Allergies Linked to Reduced Small Airway Function in Children With Asthma

Children and young adults with asthma and multiple food allergies may be at risk for reduced small airway lung function than children with a single food allergy.

Chronic Cough in Interstitial Lung Disease: More Clinical Trials Needed

An expert panel developed suggestions for chronic cough management in interstitial lung disease, but more clinical trials are needed to establish recommendations.

Severe Asthma Risk Increased From Aspergillus fumigatus Sensitization

Sensitization to Aspergillus fumigatus increased the risk for severe asthma.

Rifampin Similar to Isoniazid for Preventing Active Tuberculosis

Rifampin has significantly higher rate of treatment completion, fewer drug-related adverse events.

Collagen Degradation, Formation Elevated in Patients With Exacerbated COPD

Serologically assessed collagen remodeling plays a key role in the severity of COPD, as determined by airflow limitation and dyspnea, as well as in disease outcomes.

CDC: 'Tips' Campaign Has Helped a Number of Smokers Quit

More than 9 million smokers have attempted to quit because of Tips from Former Smokers Campaign.

Wildfire Smoke Causes Health Risks

Agency offers steps to minimize exposure, particularly for those with chronic conditions.

FDA: Zephyr Endobronchial Valve Approved for Severe Emphysema

Valve has been approved after review of data from trial involving 190 patients with emphysema

Type 2 Diabetes Does Not Affect Pneumonia Incidence, Outcomes After Stroke

Investigators examined the incidence and outcomes of pneumonia in patients with acute ischemic stroke and type 2 diabetes.

COPD End-of-Life Management Strategies: Use Could Be Expanded

The use of formal palliative care services among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increased by 1% per year, going from 5.3% in 2004 to 14.3% in 2014.

Tiotropium Once-Daily Plus ICS Maintenance May Improve Airflow Obstruction in Adult Asthma

Researchers from the University of Rochester identified improvement in pulmonary function in symptomatic adult patients with asthma treated with once-daily tiotropium.

Double Lung Transplantation Improves Survival in Interstitial Pulmonary Fibrosis

Double lung transplantation appears to offer superior survival outcomes to single lung transplantation in patients with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis who are younger than 70 years.

CD63 Ratio May Predict Allergic Reaction Severity in Peanut Food Challenge

Researchers developed a predictive algorithm to identify individuals with a higher risk for severe reactions to the standardized peanut oral food challenge.

Adenoid, Tonsil Removal May Affect Later Respiratory Risks

Surgeries by age 9 associated with higher long-term risks of respiratory, infectious, allergic diseases

Respiratory Pathogens May Increase Treatment Failure Risk in Asthma

Increased risk of treatment failure for children with asthma exacerbations presenting to the ER.

AAFP Joins Call on FDA to Reduce Nicotine Content in Cigarettes

AAFP and other signatories also call on FDA to apply the proposal to other combustible tobacco products

Vitamin D Supplements May Reduce Recurrent Wheezing in Preterm Black Infants

In black infants who were born preterm, vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk for recurrent wheezing.

Lung Cancer Incidence Higher for Young Women Than Young Men

Crossover in sex-specific rates among US non-Hispanic whites born since 1965

PAH Risk, Mortality Increased by Disturbances in Male Sex Hormones

Men with higher estradiol and estradiol/testosterone levels had an increased risk for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Hand Grip Strength Associated With All-Cause Mortality, Other Adverse Outcomes

Grip strength is strongly and inversely associated with all-cause mortality and incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, COPD, all cancer, and subtypes of cancer, with associations being modestly stronger in the younger age groups.

Prevalence of Obese, Allergic Asthma Phenotypes Examined in US Children

The study authors examined data obtained from the 2007-2008 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) to determine the prevalence, risk factors, as well as the severity of asthma phenotypes.

Case Study: Cardiovascular Complications of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

A 55-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease reports having some mild chest pain.

Low Neighborhood Walkability Increases Risk of Asthma in Kids

Findings among children for both incident asthma and ongoing asthma.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Can Be Effectively Managed in Primary Care

Findings based on a portable monitor and use of a semi-automatic treatment algorithm

Early Child Care Attendance and Asthma, Wheeze Risk: Is There a Link?

Early child care attendance increased the risk for wheeze in children ≤2 years of age but decreased the risk for asthma in children 3 to 5 years of age.

COPD Risk in Middle Age: The 3-Way Interaction of Asthma, Smoking, and Childhood Measles

A childhood measles infection may increase the risk for post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction in middle-age adults via its interaction with asthma and smoking.

Pediatric Asthma Unaffected by 5-fold Increased Inhaled Glucocorticoid Dose

Increasing inhaled glucocorticoid doses at initial signs of exacerbating asthma may not be effective.

High-Flow Oxygen Treatment Better for Infants with Bronchiolitis Than Standard Therapy

Compared with standard oxygen therapy, high-flow treatments were better for infants with bronchiolotis.

Assessing LABA, LAMA treatments for persistent asthma control

Single maintenance and reliever therapy and long-acting muscarinic antagonists are linked to better management of asthma in patients with uncontrolled, persistent asthma.

Smoking Screening Beneficial in Pediatric Pulmonology Clinics

Adaption of processes in pediatric pulmonology clinics that may eliminate tobacco use and exposure will help with decreasing medical expenses and hospital admissions for illnesses that can be triggered from smoke exposure.

Physical fitness in adolescence impacts adult lung performance

Involvement in aerobic fitness activities helps adolescents and children increase lung volume as adults but does not improve airway caliber.

Varicose veins associated with increased risk of deep venous thrombosis

There is a significant association between varicose veins and an increased risk for deep venous thrombosis and possible associations with pulmonary embolism and peripheral artery disease, though results are still unclear.

Asthma, allergic rhinitis prevalence with long-term opioid use

Patients with opioid dependence or abuse may exhibit a higher prevalence of asthma compared with the general population.

Prenatal vitamin D may increase pediatric allergic rhinitis risk

Prenatal vitamin D is associated with an increased risk for allergic rhinitis in children born to African American women, but not white women.

Inhaler use in asthma and COPD: Patient characteristics compared

Researchers examined real-world characteristics of patients receiving albuterol multidose dry powder inhaler or short-acting β2 agonists with short-acting β2 agonists for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Skin hypersensitivity in infants decreased with yogurt consumption

When testing for sensitivity to histamine, larger swelling sizes were recorded for infants with eczema and atopic dermatitis compared with infants without those conditions.

Dupilumab treatment in moderate to severe atopic dermatitis

Researchers assessed whether the administration of dupilumab improves signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis in patients with or without comorbid asthma.

Allergic disease risk in children may increase with antibiotic exposure

Children who are exposed to antibiotics earlier in life may have an increased risk for allergic diseases, including asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis.

Intranasal corticosteroid treatment confirmed for nasal congestion with seasonal allergic rhinitis

Intranasal corticosteroids are the current guideline-preferred treatment recommendation for nasal congestion.

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