Pulmonology

PAH Risk, Mortality Increased by Disturbances in Male Sex Hormones

PAH Risk, Mortality Increased by Disturbances in Male Sex Hormones

Men with higher estradiol and estradiol/testosterone levels had an increased risk for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Hand Grip Strength Associated With All-Cause Mortality, Other Adverse Outcomes

Hand Grip Strength Associated With All-Cause Mortality, Other Adverse Outcomes

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Grip strength is strongly and inversely associated with all-cause mortality and incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, COPD, all cancer, and subtypes of cancer, with associations being modestly stronger in the younger age groups.

Parental cannabis use increasing, cigarette use decreasing

Current cannabis use among parents with children at home increased from 4.9% to 6.8% while current cigarette use declined from 27.6% to 20.2% from 2002-2015, as measured by the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

Case Study: Cardiovascular Complications of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Case Study: Cardiovascular Complications of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

A 55-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease reports having some mild chest pain.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Can Be Effectively Managed in Primary Care

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Can Be Effectively Managed in Primary Care

Findings based on a portable monitor and use of a semi-automatic treatment algorithm

Early Child Care Attendance and Asthma, Wheeze Risk: Is There a Link?

Early Child Care Attendance and Asthma, Wheeze Risk: Is There a Link?

Early child care attendance increased the risk for wheeze in children ≤2 years of age but decreased the risk for asthma in children 3 to 5 years of age.

COPD Risk in Middle Age: The 3-Way Interaction of Asthma, Smoking, and Childhood Measles

COPD Risk in Middle Age: The 3-Way Interaction of Asthma, Smoking, and Childhood Measles

A childhood measles infection may increase the risk for post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction in middle-age adults via its interaction with asthma and smoking.

Health burden varies significantly by state in the US

In the US Burden of Disease Report, the leading causes of death were ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Alzheimer's disease, and colorectal cancer while the leading causes of disability were low back pain, major depressive disorder, and diabetes.

Pediatric Asthma Unaffected by 5-fold Increased Inhaled Glucocorticoid Dose

Pediatric Asthma Unaffected by 5-fold Increased Inhaled Glucocorticoid Dose

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Increasing inhaled glucocorticoid doses at initial signs of exacerbating asthma may not be effective.

High-Flow Oxygen Treatment Better for Infants with Bronchiolitis Than Standard Therapy

High-Flow Oxygen Treatment Better for Infants with Bronchiolitis Than Standard Therapy

Compared with standard oxygen therapy, high-flow treatments were better for infants with bronchiolotis.

Assessing LABA, LAMA treatments for persistent asthma control

Assessing LABA, LAMA treatments for persistent asthma control

Single maintenance and reliever therapy and long-acting muscarinic antagonists are linked to better management of asthma in patients with uncontrolled, persistent asthma.

Smoking Screening Beneficial in Pediatric Pulmonology Clinics

Smoking Screening Beneficial in Pediatric Pulmonology Clinics

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Adaption of processes in pediatric pulmonology clinics that may eliminate tobacco use and exposure will help with decreasing medical expenses and hospital admissions for illnesses that can be triggered from smoke exposure.

Physical fitness in adolescence impacts adult lung performance

Physical fitness in adolescence impacts adult lung performance

Involvement in aerobic fitness activities helps adolescents and children increase lung volume as adults but does not improve airway caliber.

Case Study: Worsening Dyspnea in a Pregnant Woman

Case Study: Worsening Dyspnea in a Pregnant Woman

A 32-year-old woman, diagnosed several months earlier with pulmonary arterial hypertension, presented to the emergency department with dyspnea and near syncopal episodes.

Increased inhaled glucocorticoids do not prevent asthma exacerbations in children: The STICS trial

In children age 5 to 11 with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma treated with daily inhaled glucocorticoids, quintupling the dose of inhaled glucocorticoids during the initial signs of worsening asthma control did not reduce the rate of severe exacerbations.

Varicose veins associated with increased risk of deep venous thrombosis

Varicose veins associated with increased risk of deep venous thrombosis

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There is a significant association between varicose veins and an increased risk for deep venous thrombosis and possible associations with pulmonary embolism and peripheral artery disease, though results are still unclear.

Inhaler use in asthma and COPD: Patient characteristics compared

Inhaler use in asthma and COPD: Patient characteristics compared

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Researchers examined real-world characteristics of patients receiving albuterol multidose dry powder inhaler or short-acting β2 agonists with short-acting β2 agonists for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Asthma, allergic rhinitis prevalence with long-term opioid use

Asthma, allergic rhinitis prevalence with long-term opioid use

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Patients with opioid dependence or abuse may exhibit a higher prevalence of asthma compared with the general population.

Skin hypersensitivity in infants decreased with yogurt consumption

Skin hypersensitivity in infants decreased with yogurt consumption

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When testing for sensitivity to histamine, larger swelling sizes were recorded for infants with eczema and atopic dermatitis compared with infants without those conditions.

Allergic disease risk in children may increase with antibiotic exposure

Allergic disease risk in children may increase with antibiotic exposure

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Children who are exposed to antibiotics earlier in life may have an increased risk for allergic diseases, including asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis.

Sex-based young adult asthma risks associated with acetaminophen use

Sex-based young adult asthma risks associated with acetaminophen use

Data from the Isle of Wight birth cohort study and the Kuwait University Allergy cross-sectional study were used to assess self-reported acetaminophen use and asthma diagnosis.

Intranasal corticosteroid treatment confirmed for nasal congestion with seasonal allergic rhinitis

Intranasal corticosteroid treatment confirmed for nasal congestion with seasonal allergic rhinitis

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Intranasal corticosteroids are the current guideline-preferred treatment recommendation for nasal congestion.

E-cigarettes may lead youth to start smoking, adults to stop: NASEM report

E-cigarettes may lead youth to start smoking, adults to stop: NASEM report

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A congressionally mandated report has found that e-cigarettes are likely to be far less harmful than conventional cigarettes, although they are not without health risks.

Air pollution increases mortality risk in older adults

Air pollution increases mortality risk in older adults

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Exposure to surrounding air pollutants and warm season ozone are linked to increased risk of death.

FDA removes Boxed Warning from select asthma, COPD medications

FDA removes Boxed Warning from select asthma, COPD medications

New evidence regarding safety is spurring the US FDA to remove a Boxed Warning from certain inhaled medications used to treat asthma and COPD.

Treatment guidelines updated for coughing associated with common cold

Treatment guidelines updated for coughing associated with common cold

There has been little change in the treatment recommendations for cough due to the common cold since publication of guidelines in 2006.

Once-daily single-inhaler triple therapy better for lung function in COPD

Once-daily single-inhaler triple therapy better for lung function in COPD

Results support the benefits of single-inhaler triple therapy compared with inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist therapy in patients with advanced COPD.

Vitamin B supplements not chemopreventive for lung cancer

Vitamin B supplements not chemopreventive for lung cancer

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Vitamin B supplements are not chemopreventive and may increase cancer risk in men.

Oral corticosteroids not effective for lower respiratory tract infection

Oral corticosteroids not effective for lower respiratory tract infection

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No significant effects were found from oral corticosteroid use for acute lower respiratory tract infection in adults without asthma.

Occupational pesticide exposure linked to fixed airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis

Occupational pesticide exposure linked to fixed airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis

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Results show that exposure to pesticides and herbicides is associated with fixed airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis.

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