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Clostridium difficile diarrhea

Do we know which antibiotics are most likely to cause Clostridium difficile diarrhea? Also, what is the correct pronunciation of “difficile?”—James Nahlik, MD, St. Louis Any antibiotic can cause C. difficile-associated diarrhea, but the most common are penicillins, clindamycin, cephalosporins, and more recently quinolones. I use the common U.S. pronunciation “dif-i-seal,” which is the French…
Pediatrics

Clostridium difficile colitis

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has Clostridium difficile infection? What are the typical findings for this disease? The clinical manifestations associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) vary widely, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to fulminant colitis and death. The most common manifestation of C. difficile disease is watery diarrhea,…
Hospital Medicine

Clostridium difficile infection

I. What every physician needs to know. Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic gram-positive, spore-forming, toxin-producing bacillus that causes a toxin-mediated diarrhea and colitis in susceptible persons, and is transmitted through the fecal-oral route. The pathogenesis is related to the disruption of normal intestinal flora as a result of antibiotic therapy. The two exotoxins (TcdA and…
Critical Care Medicine

Clostridium Difficile, Cdiff

Clostridium difficile infection Synonyms Clostridium difficile, Cdiff, CDAD Related Conditions Colitis, toxic megacolon, antibiotic-associated diarrhea 1. Description of the problem What every clinician needs to know Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic spore-forming gram-positive rod that is difficult to isolate in culture. While only 10-30% of antibiotic-associated diarrhea cases are attributable to Cdiff, 60-75% of antibiotic-associated…
Critical Care Medicine

Diarrhea in the ICU

Diagnosis and management of diarrhea in the intensive care unit Related conditions Diarrhea in the critical care setting Hospital-acquired diarrhea Nosocomial diarrhea 1. Description of the problem What every clinician needs to know Diarrhea is defined as more than 3 bowel movements per day and stool weight greater than 200-300 grams per day or volume…
Hospital Infection Control

Gastrointestinal tract infections

Gastrointestinal tract infections Vascular Catheter-Related BSIs Mechanical Circulating Support-Related BSIs Gastroenteritis Adenovirus (gastroenteritis) Campylobacter species Cholera Clostridium difficile Cryptosporidium species Cyclospora infections E. coli: Enterohemorrhagic 0157:H7; other species Entamoeba histolytica (Amebiasis) enteritis Giardia lamblia (Giardiasis) Norovirus Rotavirus Salmonellosis (Salmonella species, typhoidal and non-typhoidal) Shigellosis (Shigella species) Vibrio parahemolyticus Yersinia enterocolitica What are the key principles…
Hospital Medicine

Clostridium difficile infection

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has C. difficile infection (CDI)? What should you expect to find? Diarrhea is the key symptom of Clostridium difficile infection, with various degrees of abdominal cramping and pain in most patients, but accompanied by fever in a minority (28%). Occasionally, patients also have…
Hospital Infection Control

Laboratory advances for infection control

Laboratory advances for infection control How do the contributions of laboratory advances impact infection control? Background Two major roles of the clinical microbiology laboratory are to detect and accurately identify organisms from clinical specimens and to provide, where appropriate, accurate antimicrobial susceptibility results. These major laboratory roles form the foundation for evaluating any recent advance…
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