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Dermatology

Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome

Mycosis Fungoides (MF) and Sezary Syndrome. Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? What you should be alert for in the history Be observant for a patient who has had a long history of a questionable rash or a benign skin condition, particularly in areas of non–sun-exposed skin, unresponsive to medications indicated for that disease. The…
Pulmonary Medicine

Paraneoplastic Syndromes Associated with Lung Cancer (ectopic Cushing’s syndrome, SIADH, hypercalcemia of malignancy,Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis, paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus, dermatomyositis)

What every physician needs to know: Lung cancer symptoms usually arise from the direct effects of tumor on the lungs or contiguous structures by compression, obstruction, or invasion of other organs. However, another important form of clinical presentation is paraneoplastic syndromes. Paraneoplastic syndromes are defined as symptoms and signs distant to the primary tumor site…
Infectious Diseases

Mediastinitis

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has mediastinitis? What should you expect to find? Acute mediastinitis is an uncommon but potentially devastating infection involving the structures of the mediastinum. This infection can arise from perforation of the esophagus or spread from an oropharyngeal source, but most commonly occurs as…
Obstetrics and Gynecology

Operative Vaginal Delivery

Operative Vaginal Delivery Introduction Unfortunately, obstructed labor still complicates thousands of deliveries worldwide, claiming hundreds of maternal and fetal/neonatal lives and causing significant morbidities in the survivors (such as is the case with obstetric fistulas) that could have been otherwise prevented with timely obstetrical interventions. Obstetrical forceps and vacuums refer both to a heterogeneous group…
Hospital Infection Control

Antifungals

What is the impact of antifungals on the prevention and control of health care-associated infections? Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are a common cause of health care-associated infections. Candidiasis is especially common in intensive care units (ICUs), particularly in patients with abdominal surgery, multiple trauma or severe burns, and in neonatal ICUs. In some series Candida…
Critical Care Medicine

Immunodeficiencies in Infants and Children

Treating opportunistic infections in HIV-infected children and adolescents Synonyms Pediatric AIDS, Pediatric HIV Related conditions Mycobacteria [Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)], Invasive and Recurrent Bacterial Infections, Fungi [Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia (PCP), Candida species, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasmosis], Protozoa [Toxoplasmosis] and Viruses [Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus I and II and Varicella Zoster]. 1. Description of the…
Critical Care Medicine

Acute Kidney Injury Requiring Renal Replacement Therapy, Kidney Replacement Therapy, Dialysis, Acute Renal Failure

1. Description of the problem Glossary Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT): Any method of attempting to purify the blood in the presence of renal dysfunction. Includes continuous, intermittent and peritoneal methods. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT): Any method attempting to provide extracorporeal blood purification in the presence of renal dysfunction with the aim of 24-hour-per-day support.…
Pulmonary Medicine

Insomnia

What every physician needs to know: Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder found in the general adult population, with 30 percent of adults reporting insomnia symptoms and 10 percent of adults meeting the full criteria for diagnosis of insomnia. Approximately 80-90 percent of insomnia cases are comorbid with other psychiatric or medical conditions. Following…
Infectious Diseases

Enterobacteriaceae

OVERVIEW: What every clinician needs to know Pathogen name and classification The family Enterobacteriaceae consists of a number of species that are gram-negative bacilli (GNB). Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia are not discussed here. Most of the other Enterobacteriaceae cause a wide variety of extra-intestinal infections. Edwardsiella tardi can cause both extra-intestinal and intestinal infection. Klebsiella…
Pulmonary Medicine

Lung Cancer: General Considerations

What every physician needs to know: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. In the United States in 2015, there were an estimated 221,200 new cases of lung cancer and 158,040 deaths from the disease. Bronchogenic carcinoma, the most common type, refers to malignancies that originate in the lung parenchyma, trachea,…
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