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Hematology

Megaloblastic anemia

Megaloblastic anemia What every physician needs to know about megaloblastic anemia? Megaloblastic anemias arise from a common defect in DNA synthesis that leads to a distinctive morphological pattern within rapidly proliferating cells within the bone marrow. While commonly induced by anti-cancer or anti-viral drugs, megaloblastic anemia has been traditionally ascribed to a deficiency of either…
Anesthesiology

Repair of ruptured quadriceps

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Anatomy: Musculoskeletal: The quadriceps muscle is composed of four muscle groups – rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and vastus intermedius. The quadriceps tendon is a trilaminar structure formed by the coalescence of all four muscle tendons just proximal to the suprapatellar margin. The rectus femoris…
Dermatology

Acne vulgaris, Acne conglobata & Acne fulminans

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? Acne is an exceptionally common disorder in adolescents, affecting up to 85% of 12-24–year olds. In fact, most patients can accurately diagnose themselves. The presence of inflammatory papules and pustules along with comedones, involving the face, chest, shoulders and back, are hallmarks of acne vulgaris. Nodules and nodulocystic lesions…
Critical Care Medicine

Poisonous plants and animals

Poisonous Plants and Animals Synonyms Continue Reading Plant toxicity, Jamaican vomiting sickness, anticholinergic plant poisoning, green tobacco sickness, snake envenomation, hymenoptera envenomation, Africanized honeybee envenomation, scorpion sting, black widow spider envenomation, brown recluse spider envenomation Related Conditions Cardiac glycoside poisoning, cyanide poisoning, anaphylactic shock 1. Description of the problem Poisonous Plants Poisoning almost always occurs…
Anesthesiology

Cystic fibrosis

What every physician needs to know: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a relatively common disease that is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern and results in a shortened average life span. CF affects all exocrine glands of the body, but abnormalities in the lungs and pancreas usually dominate the clinical picture. CF lung disease is a…
Infectious Diseases

Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy

General (including evidence of efficacy) When to start therapy Overview Over the past few years, there has been a dramatic shift towards treating all HIV-infected individuals, even those with relatively preserved CD4 T-cell counts. As a result, most people living with HIV should initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART). Strong endorsements for initiating ART regardless of CD4…
Anesthesiology

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Anesthesia for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG surgery) is an extremely complex subject and overlaps most of the field of cardiac anesthesia. Extensive literature has been written on this subject. This clinical decision support will be an over view of the subject. Many areas covered are…
Nephrology Hypertension

Chronic Kidney Disease: Cardiovascular Disease and Dyslipidemia

Does this patient with chronic kidney disease have underlying cardiovascular disease? Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death among adults in both developed and developing countries. In the United States, more than 92 million adults have at least one type of CVD, which accounted for 30.8% of all deaths in 2014. Every year…
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