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Laser Surgery of the Airway

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure The history of the use of lasers for laryngotracheal disorders, as well as a review of the various types of lasers, is presented first. Readers can refer to “Anesthesia for Laser Surgery” later in the chapter for complete information on anesthetic techniques during surgery. The primary…
Endocrinology Metabolism

Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

Are You Sure the Patient Has a Cardiovascular Complication of Diabetes? Scope of the Problem Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. When examining the impact of cardiovascular disease on diabetic patients and the importance of appropriate screening and treatment, it is vital to bear in mind…
Obstetrics and Gynecology

Shoulder Dystocia

Shoulder dystocia 1. What every clinician should know Obstetricians have two major concerns when dealing with shoulder dystocia. The first is the technical aspects of attempting to predict who is at risk for shoulder dystocia, managing it when it occurs, and attempting to avoid the dreaded consequence of permanent brachial plexus injury to the neonate…

Postpartum tubal ligation

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure The postpartum period presents an optimal time for tubal ligation. The enlarged uterus facilitates access to the tubes, eliminating the need for a laparoscope and attendant risks. Furthermore, the patient is already in-house with a nursery typically available for care of the newborn. 1. What is…

A comprehensive look at kidney stones

Some risk factors are unavoidable, but adjusting your patient's diet and addressing comorbidities can prevent excruciating episodes.

Patient Positioning During Anesthesia: Beach Chair and Sitting Position

Patient transfer Prior to achieving any surgical position, the patient must be transferred onto the operating room table. The final position of the patient is of the utmost importance, but achieving these positions requires careful planning and coordination by the operating room team. The overall plan for each patient transfer should be discussed prior to…
Gastroenterology Hepatology

Diverticular disease

How can I be sure that the patient has diverticular disease? Signs and symptoms usually found The most common symptom of acute diverticulitis is left lower quadrant pain. Other common symptoms include low-grade fever, nausea, vomiting, constipation, and diarrhea. Usual constellation of clinical features The clinical presentation of acute diverticulitis is dependent on the severity…
Nephrology Hypertension

Kidney Stones

History, signs, and symptoms The prevalence of kidney stones in the United States has been increasing for at least the past 30 years and is currently about 5%. Most kidney stones (85-90%) are composed primarily of calcium oxalate with some containing calcium phosphate, and the majority of these are idiopathic; that is, not caused by…
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