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Endocrinology Metabolism

Hypopituitarism

Are You Sure the Patient Has Hypopituitarism? Hypopituitarism is defined as partial or complete deficiency in one or more of the hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland (ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH, GH, prolactin) or posterior pituitary (ADH, oxytocin). Panhypopituitarism refers to decreased production of all of the pituitary hormones of the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)…
Dermatology

Gout (Monosodium Urate Deposition Disease)

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? What you should be alert for in the history The classical presentation of gout (also called podagra) is monoarthritis affecting the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint that , often awakens the patient in the middle of the night. Gout can occur as a monoarthritis, oligoarthritis, or a polyarthritis. The areas…
Pediatrics

Hypocalcemia

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has hypocalcemia? What are the typical findings for this disease? Hypocalcemia may present with irritability, tetany, seizures, apnea (in the neonate), laryngospasm or paresthesias (in the older child). The presence of a prolonged QT interval by electrocardiography is a physiologic marker of hypocalcemia.…
Obstetrics and Gynecology

Headache

Migraine headache 1. What every clinician should know Migraine is a neurologic disorder with attacks that generally will include throbbing pain, activity intolerance, nausea, and light and sound sensitivity. In about 30% of individuals, attacks are preceded by an aura—most commonly visual phenomena that migrate across the visual field. Migraine affects roughly 12% of the…
Pulmonary Medicine

Chest Wall Disorders (include scoliosis, chest wall tumors, trauma)

What every physician needs to know: Common disorders of the chest wall may be broadly considered in three categories: chest wall trauma, chest wall masses, and scoliosis. Chest Wall Trauma Thoracic trauma includes injuries to the chest wall and the intrathoracic structures. Chest wall trauma is seen in 30 percent of patients who present with…
Endocrinology Metabolism

Osteomalacia

Are you sure your patient has Osteomalacia and what should you expect to find? Osteomalacia means softening of the bones and refers to defective or delayed mineralization of the organic matrix (osteoid) of cancellous and cortical bone. Rickets refers to impaired mineralization of the cartilaginous growth plate and abnormal endochondral bone formation and, therefore, cannot…
Pediatrics

Non-Hodgkins

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma? What are the typical findings for this disease? Pediatric Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma (NHL) includes a group of malignancies arising from lymphoid cells and organs. NHL can affect children at any age. Children generally present with adenopathy and systemic symptoms such as…
Pediatrics

Heat-related illness

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Heat illness is caused by the inability to maintain normal body temperature because of excessive heat production or exposure, an inability to dissipate the heat, or a combination of both. Heat exhaustion and heat stroke will be addressed in this chapter. Are you sure your patient has heat-related…
Obstetrics and Gynecology

Influenza in Pregnancy

Influenza 1. What every clinician should know Influenza is a common infectious disease caused by a family of RNA viruses (orthomyxoviruses) capable of infecting a wide variety of bird and mammalian species. In humans, characteristic symptoms include fever, sore throat, myalgias, chills, cough, headache, fatigue and malaise. Influenza viruses are transmitted primarily by aerosols created…
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